CARBOHYDRATES (MIDTERM)

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Carbohydrates

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121 Terms

1

Carbohydrates

Major source of energy from our diet, composed of C H O

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2

Saccharides

These are also known as “sugars”

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3

Sweetening agent

This is another usage of carbohydrates

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4

Vegetables, Fruits, Starches, Meat, Egg

This is where carbohydrates are commonly found

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5

Chlorophyll

It captures light during photosynthesis in plants

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6

Light

Is an agent or catalyst that makes the reaction of glucose and plants possible

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7

Respiration

Carbs are oxidized in living cells

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8

Polyhydroxyaldehyde/polyhydroxyketone

A substance that carbohydrates give on hydrolysis

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9

Monosaccharide

It is the simplest among saccharides that cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler formula. Cyclic, closed string.

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10

Aldose and ketose

Two types of monosaccharides

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11

Aldose

A monosaccharide that contains an aldehyde group

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12

Ketose

A monosaccharide that contains a ketone group

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13

Oligosaccharide

A biological intermediate, 3-10 sugars

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14

Polysaccharide

More than 10 saccharides that can still break down and produce monosaccharide

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15

Aldo

Carbonyl carbon at the terminal carbon

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16

Keto

Carbonyl carbon in between two carbons

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17

Glyceraldehyde and Dihyroxyacetone

Two trioses in monosaccharides

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18

Glyceraldehyde

Triose for aldose, it contains a stereocenter

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19

Dihyroxyacetone

Triose for ketose

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20

Fischer projection

Emil fischer proposed that it has tetrahedral stereocenters.

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21

Horizontal Lines

It is an indication where bonds project forward

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22

Vertical Lines

It is an indication that bonds are projecting to the rear

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23

Penultimate carbon

Second to the last carbon

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24

Enantiomers

Stereoisomers that are mirror images but doesn’t have the same confirmation

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25

Diastereoisomers

It does not mirror image

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26

Epimers

It differs in one chiral carbon only

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27

D-erythrose, D-threose

Most common two D-aldotetroses

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28

D-ribose, 2-Deoxy-D-ribose

Most common two D-alpentoses

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29

D-sugars

Natural sugars

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30

L-sugars

Synthetic sugars, these are manufacturized and are sweetening agents

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31

D-galactose

These are present in milk and is a fruit sugar too

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32

D-fructose

The sweetest of all monosaccharides that gives the sweet taste of most sugars

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33

1

In numbering carbons, you start at the carbonyl carbon

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34

Anomeric carbon

The result of cyclic hemiacetal formation

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35

Anomers

Carborhydrates that differ in configuration only at their anomeric carbon

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36

Haworth Projections

These are cyclic monosaccharides that has 5 and 6 membered hemiacetals that is represented as planar pentagons or hexagons. Commonly writteh with anomeric carbon on the right and hemiacetal oxygen to the back right.

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37

Beta

-OH on the carbon is cis to the terminal -CH2OH, projects upward

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38

Alpha

It is trans, projects downward

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39

Furanose

5 membered ring (pentagon)

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40

Pyranose

6 membered ring (hexagon)

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41

Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)

This is used to create and make collagen, it is physiologically active and boosts our immune system

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42

Biochemically and Industrially

Ascorbic acid canbe synthesized both

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43

L-dehydroascorbic

Easily oxidized by ascorbic acid

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44

Reducing sugar

It reduces an oxidizing agent

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45

Aldehyde groups

It can be reduced to alcohol group (by hydrogen)

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46

Carboxylic acid

The result of the oxdized aldehyde groups

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47

Alditol

Reduction of the c=o group of a monosaccharide gives this polyhydroxyl compound

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48

D-Glucitol/D-Sorbitol

Sugar alcohols that are found in many candies (alditol)

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49

Reduction of monosaccharides

Involves a carbonyl group and sugar alcohols

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50

Phospheric Esters

Particularly important in metabolism of sugars (enzyme phophorylase glucose)

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51

Glycosides

OH of the anomeric is replaced by OR

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52

Furanosides

Glycosides in furanoses

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53

Pyranosides

Glycosides in pyranoses

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54

Glycosidic bond

Anomeric carbon to the -OR group

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55

Amino sugars

Carbs + amino, compound sugars

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56

Disaccharides

It is combined together by glycosidic bonds

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57

Sucrose

One unit of D-glucose and one unit of D-frutose joined by an a-1, b-2-glycosidic (sugar cane, sugar beet)

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58

Anomeric Carbon

You need this to become a reducing sugar

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59

Lactose

b-1, b-4 glycosidic bonds, carbons used in bonding is carbon no, 1 and no. 4 (milk in humans and cows)

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60

Maltose

(beers, ferment) a-1, a-4 glycosidic bond

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61

Polysaccharide

b-1,4-glycosidic bonds

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62

Cellulose

A major structural component of plants esp wood and plant fibers, cannot be digested by humans (b-1,4)

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63

Alpha Enzymes

Human only has this type of enzymes (only starches)

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64

Cellobiose

Two unit of glucose of cellulose

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65

Starch

Energy storage in plants and is present staple foods (polymer of a-D-Glucose units)

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66

Amylose and amylopectin

2 Types of starch

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67

Amylose

A type of starch that is continous and has unbranched chains, straight chain

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68

Amylopectin

A type of starch that is highly branched polymer

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69

Glycogen

Animal starch that is found mostly on muscles and liver

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70

Chitin

A major structural component of the exoskeletons of invertebraes, insects, and crustaceans

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71

Bacterial cell wall

Biological materials and is composed of polysaccharides

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72

NAM-NAG

These are what prokaryotic cell walls are constructed, cross-linked by small peptides

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73

D-Ala, D-Gin

Two amino acids of the D-series of a tetrapeptide

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74

Gram-negative

It is harder to penetrate compared to Gram-positive (cytoplasmic membranes)

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75

Plant Cell Walls

It consists of a large cellulose and pectin that functions as an intercellular cementing material

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76

Pectin

A polymer of D-galacturonic acid, a-1,4 glycosidic bonds

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77

Glycosaminoglycans

A repeating dissacharide where one of the monomers is an amino sugar

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78

Heparin

Natural coagulant of blood

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79

Hyaluronic Acid

Vitreous humor of the eye and lubricationg the joints

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80

Chondroitin sulfate and keratin sulfate

A component of connective tissue

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81

Glycoproteins

A sugar with proteins

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82

Antigenic determinants

Carbs also play this role where antibodies recognize and to which they bond

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83

A

Blood type that has NAGal

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84

B

Blood type that has Gal

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85

AB

Blood type that has NAGal and Gal

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86

O

Blood type that niether has NAGal

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87

L-fucose

Synthesized biochemically from D-mannose

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88

NAGal

N-acetyl-D-galactosamine

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89

Gal

D-Galactose

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90

NAGlu

N-acetyl-D-glucosamine

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91

Fuc

L-fructose

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92

Triose

C3H6O3

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93

Tetroise

C4H804

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94

Pentose

C5H10O5

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95

Hexose

C6H12O6

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96

Heptose

C7H14O7

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97

Octose

C8H16O8

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98

Top

Where is the most oxidized group written

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99

D-monosaccharide

-OH is on the penultimate carbon on the right

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100

L-monosaccharide

-OH is on the penultimate carbon on the left

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