Final Psych Test

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Structuralism

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148 Terms

1

Structuralism

Was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related.

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2

Functionalism

based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of the consciousness, rather than its structure

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3

philosophy

enhances a person's problem solving capabilities

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4

physiology

Study how the human body works

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5

APA

American Psychological Association is the world's largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology

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6

Stream of Consciousness

Consciousness consists of a continuous flow of thoughts

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7

Wilhelm Wundt

established the first psychology laboratory, structuralism, scientific study of conscious experience

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8

Introspection

examination of one's own thoughts and feelings

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9

Psychoanalysis

procedure used by Sigmund Freud to treat people troubled by psychological problems such as irrational fears, obsessions, anxieties.

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10

Sigmund Freud

Austrian neurologist known for his work on the unconscious mind. Father of psychoanalysis.

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11

Behaviorism

A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior

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12

B.F. Skinner

Behaviorist that developed the theory of operant conditioning by training pigeons and rats. free will is an illusion, fundamental principle of behavior

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13

John B. Watson

behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat

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14

Ivan Pavlov

discovered classical conditioning; trained dogs to salivate at the ringing of a bell, behaviorism.

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15

Reinforcement

any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

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16

Humanism

A belief that emphasizes faith and optimism in human potential and creativity

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17

Carl Rogers

Humanisic; self-concept and unconditional positive regard drive personality

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18

Abraham Maslow

humanistic psychology; hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied; self-actualization, transcendence

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19

cognitive

how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information

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20

Sociocultural

study of how cultural and political experiences affect our life

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21

evolutionary psychology

the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection

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22

Positive Psychology

the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive

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23

Neurobiological Psychology

the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental processes

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24

developmental psychology (hard)

the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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25

experimental psychology (hard)

the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

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26

Psychometric Psychology (hard)

the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits

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27

Social Psychology (hard)

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

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28

Clinical Psychology (soft)

studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

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29

counseling psychology (soft)

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being

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30

educational psychology (soft)

Work to improve curriculum design, achievement testing, teacher training, and other aspects of the educational process.

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31

School Psychology (soft)

Usually work in elementary or secondary schools, where they test and counsel children having difficulties in school and aid parents and teachers in solving school-related problems.

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32

industrial-organizational psychology (soft)

a subfield of psychology that studies and advises on workplace behavior. Industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists help organizations select and train employees, boost morale and productivity, and design products and assess responses to them

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33

Empiricism (1)

the belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation

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34

Theoretically Diverse (2)

Psychologists do not set out to collect isolated facts; they seek to explain and understand what they observe. Means diverse theories

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35

Sociohistorical Context (3)

trends, issues, and values in society influence psychology's evolution. Similarly, progress in psychology affects trends, issues, and values in society.

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36

Determined by Multiple Causes (4)

Behavior is complex, affected by many interacting factors

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37

Culture (5)

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

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38

Heredity & Environment (6)

personal traits and abilities are governed either entirely by heredity or entirely by environment.

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39

Subjectivity (7)

Decisions based on personal feelings rather than facts

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40

Self-concept

a collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior

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41

Culture

the widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations.

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42

Nature

the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions

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43

Nurture

the totality of environmental factors that influence the development and behavior of a person

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44

Subjective

based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or opinions

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45

Skepticism

the idea that nothing can ever be known for certain

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46

Theory

A system of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations

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47

Scientific Method

A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.

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48

placebo effect

improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement

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49

Mean, Median, & Mode

3 measures of central tendency

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50

Correlations (positive and negative)

A measure of the extent to which two factors may vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. Positive = same direction. Negative = opposite direction.

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51

Control group

In an experiment, the group that either is not exposed to the treatment or receives a zero level of the independent variable

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Experimental Group

In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

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53

Dependent Variables

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

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54

independent variable

variable that is manipulated

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55

Extraneous Variables

any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study

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56

Experimental Research

research designed to discover causal relationships between various factors

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57

Descriptive Research

research methods that involve observing behavior to describe that behavior objectively and systematically

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58

Correlational Research

Research that examines the relationships between variables, whose purpose is to examine whether and how two variables change together.

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59

Sensation

stimulation of sense organs

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60

Perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information

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61

absolute threshold

the weakest amount of energy that a person can detect half the time

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62

difference threshold

the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli

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63

signal detection

Individual conditions affect decision making when responding to stimuli

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64

subliminal perception

the registration of sensory input without conscious awareness

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65

sensory deprivation

a state in which there is little or no sensory stimulation

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66

sensory adaptation

a decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation

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sensation seeking

need for varied/complex sensations and experiences

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68

trichromatic theory

theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones: red, blue, and green

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69

opponent-process theory

the theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision

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70

reconciling theories of color vision

eyes have 3 different kinds of cones, retina, thalamus, and visual cortex respond in opposite ways to opposite colors

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71

frequency theory

theory of pitch that states that pitch is related to the speed of vibrations in the basilar membrane

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72

volley theory

A theory of hearing that states that the firing rate of an acoustic nerve matches a sound wave's frequency.

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73

place theory

in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated

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74

Medulla

Controls unconscious vital function

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75

Cerebellum

Balance and coordination

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76

Pons

sleep and arousal

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77

Reticular Formation

Muscle Reflexes, breathing, pain perception

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Basal Gangalia

motor movement

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79

Thalamus

relays messages

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80

Hypothalamus

fighting, fleeing, feeding, mating,

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81

Horomones

carry messages through the body in blood

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82

pituitary gland

stores and releases hormones, master gland

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83

Adrenal Glands

glands that help the body recover from stress and respond to emergencies

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84

Hippocampus

memory and learning

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85

Corpus Callosum

joins two hemispheres of brain and communicates

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86

Occipital Lobe

vision

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87

Temporal Lobe

hearing

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88

Frontal Lobe

Higher level mental activites, muscle movement

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89

Parietal Lobe

Feeling of touch

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90

Wish-fulfillment Theory - Sigmund Freud

He believed that dreams were our way of discharging thoughts otherwise unacceptable to express and all dreams have a latent content, an underlying message in your unconscious.

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91

Problem Solving Theory

a theory that dreaming provides the opportunity to creatively solve everyday problems because dreams are not hampered by logic or realism

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92

activation-synthesis theory

a theory of dreaming; this theory proposes that the brain tries to make sense of random brain activity that occurs during sleep by synthesizing the activity with stored memories

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93

Lucid Dreams

dreams in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming

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94

Controlled Process

process that requires attention; it is often difficult to carry out more than one controlled process at a time

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95

Automatic Process

Requires little conscious awareness and mental effort, minimal attention and does not interfere with the performance of other activities.

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96

Sleep Disorders

serious and consistent sleep disturbances that interfere with daytime functioning and cause subjective distress

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97

Circadian Rhythms

Internally generated patterns of body functions, including hormonal signals, sleep, blood pressure, and temperature regulation, which have approximately a 24-hour cycle and occur even in the absence of normal cues about whether it is day or night

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98

Meditation

the focusing of the mind on spiritual ideas

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99

Hilgard

Altered level of consciousness; dissociation

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100

Sleep Apnea

a disorder in which the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep

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