KNES 323 Midterm Review

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Homeostasis

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522 Terms

1

Homeostasis

is a condition of equilibrium, or balance, in the body's internal environment

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2

How is homeostasis maintained?

regulatory processes

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3

to maintain homeostasis, control system must be able to:

detect deviations from normal.

integrate the information with other relevant information

make. appropriate adjustments to restore a factor to its desired value.

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4

circadian rhythm

endogenous autonomous oscillators that result in a ~24 hour day/night cycles

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5

two homeostasis control systems:

intrinsic and extrinsic

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intrinsic homeostasis control system

local controls that are inherent in an organ

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extrinsic homeostasis control system

regulatory mechanisms initiated outside an organ. accomplished by nervous and endocrine systems.

- hormones

-epinephrine and adrenaline

- nerves

- sympathetic

- increase heart rate

- vagus

- decrease heart rate

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8

control of homeostasis

to make dynamic equilibrium adjustments

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9

feedback loops

responses made after a change

- negative and positive

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10

feedforward loops

responses made in anticipation of a change

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11

steps to control homeostasis

1. stimulus

2. controlled condition

3. response

4. homeostasis

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12

macromolecules

large molecules necessary for life built from smaller organic molecules

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4 main macromolecules

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

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14

how are lipids broken down?

lipolysis

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15

polymers are broken down via

hydrolysis

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16

carbohydrates

simplest of macromolecules

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types of saccharides

monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides

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Monosaccharides

simplest sugars and cannot be broken down by hydrolysis, can readily be used as fuel sources in the body

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3 monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

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glucose

source of energy during cellular respiration, used to make ATP

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fructose

naturally occurring sugar found in fruits used to aid in glycolysis and helps replenish liver glycogen stores

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ribose and deoxyribose

pentose sugars found in nucleic acids. deoxyribose is found in DNA, ribose in RNA

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Disaccharide

two monosaccharides bonded together, one always being glucose

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3 main disaccarides

sucrose, lactose, maltose

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sucrose

most common dietary disaccharide, makes up 25% of calories consumed, in most foods that contain carbohydrates

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lactose

only natural source is from milk

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maltose

made from two glucose molecules, found in beer, contributes small amount to the dietary carbohydrate

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Polysaccharides

a long chain of monosaccharides; may be branched or unbranched

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main types of polysaccharides

starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin

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starch

storage form of carbohydrates in plants

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Amylose (starch)

long, straight chains the are twisted to form helical coils (slow to breakdown)

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Amylopectin

highly branched glucose chains (fast to breakdown)

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glycogen

storage form of carbohydrates within animals (muscle and liver), highly branched, converted to glucose in the body via glycogenolysis

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cellulose

most abundant naturally occurring polysaccharide, long straight chains, very hard to breakdown

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chitin

found in exoskeleton of anthropods, similar to cellulose (long straight chain), made into flexible surgical thread that decomposes

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proteins

perform essential functions, long chains of amino acids

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proteins are important for:

catalyzing chemical reactions

synthesizing and repairing DNA

transporting materials across the cell

receiving and sending chemical signals

responding to stimuli

providing structural support

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38

what are proteins made of?

20 different amino acids required by the body that make up the proteins

50 000 different proteins in the body

function of each protein will depend on how each protein is shaped

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primary protein structure

chain of amino acids

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40

secondary protein structure

folding of the polypeptide chain into helices or sheets

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tertiary protein structure

3D folding pattern of a protein due to side chain interactions

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42

quaternary protein structure

protein consisting of more than one amino acid chain

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43

enzymes

proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions

- essential for chemical processes like digestion and cellular metabolism

- without; processes would go so slow, life would not exist

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anabolic enzymes

enzymes that build more complex molecules from their substrates

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45

catabolic enzymes

enzymes that break down their substrates

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46

enzymes for digestion

amylase, pepsin, lipase, trypsin

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amylase

digestion carbohydrates in mouth and small intestine

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48

pepsin

digestion of proteins in the stomach

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lipase

emulsify fats in then small intestine

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50

trypsin

further digestion of proteins in the small intestine

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51

hormones

proteins secreted by the endocrine cells and act to control or regulate specific physiological processes

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52

hormone uses

growth

development

metabolism

reproduction

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53

insulin

A protein hormone synthesized in the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into tissues

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54

hormones(not proteins)

estrogen and testosterone (lipid steroids)

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55

lipids

fats, oils, waxes and other similar compounds in our bodies

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What are lipids made of?

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

non-polar (do not dissolve in water)

transported in blood via lipoproteins

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lipids uses

cell membranes, insulation, storage of energy

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fats

single glycerol molecule and three fatty acids

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saturated fatty acids

have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds

- solid at room temp

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unsaturated fatty acids

have one or more double bonds

- liquid at room temp

- can be mono or poly

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phospholipids

major components of the plasma membrane

- have 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group that help form diacylglycerol

-head is hydrophilic

- tail is hydrophobic

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phosopholipid bilayer

only lipophilic solutes can easily pass the bilayer

- cell communication and metabolism

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steroids

play roles in reproduction, absorption, metabolism regulation, and brain activity

- have a fused ring structure

- four linked carbon

- hydrophobic and insoluble in water

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cholesterol

most common steroid

- plays a role in synthesizing aldosterone

- contributes to formation of cortisol

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cholesterol is a precursor to:

Vitamin D, steroid hormones

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nucleic acids

DNA (deoxyribonucleaic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid)

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DNA

genetic material found in all living organisms

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RNA

involved in protein synthesis

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energy balance

every intake= internal heat produced + external work+ internal work+ energy storage

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law of thermodynamics

energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed

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energy input

Energy in ingested food

- high energy bonds of ATP

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energy output

external work

energy from nutrients that is not used to perform work

internal work

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3 states of energy balance

neutral, positive, negative

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neutral energy balance

Energy input = energy output

Body weight remains constant

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positive energy balance

energy intake is greater than energy expended, generally resulting in weight gain

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negative energy balance

energy intake is less than energy expended, resulting in weight loss

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metabolic rate

total amount of energy we need to expend (both internal and external) in order to perform a given task

metabolic rate=energy expenditure/unit of time

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basal metabolic rate (BMR)

minimal internal energy expenditure we need to maintain in order to get the basic physiological functions in our body

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to determine BMR a calorimetry assessment under which conditions:

person at physical rest

person at mental rest

done at comfortable room temp

no food within 12 hours

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80

factors influencing metabolic rate

thyroid hormone levels

sympathetic stimulation (epinephrine/norepinephrine)

exercise

daily activities

sex/gender

age

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81

metabolism

set of life- sustaining chemical processes that enables organisms transform the chemical energy stored in molecules into energy that can be used for cellular processes

- breaks down carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids we consume to prove chemical energy for ou cellular processes

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exothermic reactions

reactions that release energy

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83

endothermic

reaction that require energy to proceed

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84

How enzymes act as catalysts

1. substrate enters the active site to change the shape

2. active site acts to speed up the reaction by:

- acting as a template for substrate orientation

- stressing the substrates and stabilizing the transition state

- providing a favourable microenvironment

- participating directly in the catalytic reaction

3. substrates converted to products

4. products are released

5. active site available for two new substrate

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85

enzyme are able to:

control a single type of chemical reaction, so if it isnt working (inactivated) entire pathway will quit working

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metabolic regualtion

specific molecules regulate enzymes in order to promote or inhibit certain chemical reactions

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competitive inhibition

an inhibitor molecule is similar enough to a substrate that it can bind to the enzymes active site to stop it from binding to the substrate

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non-competitive inhibitor

inhibitor molecule binds to the enzyme at a location other than the active site (allosteric site)

- changes the shape of the enzyme so no longer optimal position to catalyze

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allosteric activators

increase reaction rates

- bind to allosteric site which induces a conformational change that increases the affinity of the enzymes active sit for its substrate

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feedback inhibition

when a reaction product is used to regulate its ow further production

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91

what do we require ATP for?

any time we wither build or breakdown something through a reaction in the body

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92

what re the 4 major macromolecular groups

carbohydrates

lipids

proteins

nucleic acids

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93

what is the most common source of energy used to fuel the body?

carbohydrates

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94

what does sugar catabolism do?

break polysaccharides into their individual monosaccharides

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95

what is the most common fuel for ATP production via cellular respiration?

glucose

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96

what is most often used for energy via beta oxidation?

triglycerides

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97

what can amino acids be used for?

building blocks of new proteins or for the production of ATP

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98

What is the formula for cellular respiration?

C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

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99

3 main phases to cellular respiration

glycolysis, Krebs/ TCA/ citric acid cycle, electron transport chain

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100

glycolysis

the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.

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