PSY100 Exam 3

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cognition

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145 Terms

1

cognition

All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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2

Metacognition

Awareness and understanding of one’s own thought processes.

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3

Concept

Mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, and people.

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4

prototype

The mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories.

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5

algorithm

A methodical, logical rule, or procedure that guarantees a solution to a problem.

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heuristic

A simpler strategy that is usually speedier than an algorithm but is also more error prone.

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7

Insight

Not a strategy-based solution but rather a sudden flash of inspiration that solves a problem.

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8

Confirmation bias

predisposes us to verify rather than challenge our hypotheses.

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9

fixation

such as a mental set, may prevent us from taking the fresh perspective that would lead to a solution.

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10

mental set

the tendency to approach a problem with previously successful mindset, an example of fixation.

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11

intuition

An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.

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12

representativeness heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; it may lead us to ignore other relevant information.

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13

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events common.

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14

Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements.

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15

belief perseverance

occurs when we cling to beliefs and ignore evidence that proves these beliefs are wrong

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16

Framing

sways decisions and judgements by influencing the way an issue is posed. It can also influence beneficial decisions.

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17

creativity

The ability to produce new and valuable ideas.

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18

convergent thinking

Narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution.

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divergent thinking

Expands the number of possible problem solutions, creative thinking that diverges in different directions.

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20

grieving and grief management

Researches make inferences about other species’ consciousness and intelligence based on behavior and found that they show grief.

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21

Language

Involves our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate. It is used to transmit civilizations knowledge from one generation to the next and connects humans.

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22

Phoneme

smallest distinctive sounds unit in language

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23

Morpheme

smallest language unit that carries meaning.

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grammar

the system of rules that enables humans to communicate with one another.

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25

babbling stage

beginning at about 4 months, an infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.

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one-word stage

from about age 1 to 2, a child speaks mostly in single words.

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two-word stage

beginning at about age 2, a child speaks mostly in two-word statements.

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28

telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, using mostly nouns and verbs

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29

aphasia

loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage

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30

Broca’s area

Motor speech area, near the motor cortex utilized in speech production. This area regulates breathing patterns while speaking and vocalizations required for normal speech.

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Wernicke's area

The region of the brain that contains motor neurons involved in the comprehension of speech. Located in the posterior third of the upper temporal convolution of the left hemisphere of the brain.

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32

linguistic determinism

Evidence from bilingual speakers suggests that people think differently in different languages. Bilingual parents often switch languages to express emotions. Bilingual children exhibit enhances social skills by being better able to shift to understand another’s perspective.

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33

linguistic relativism

The Sapir—Whorf hypothesis, also known as the linguistic relativity hypothesis, refers to the proposal that the particular language one speaks influences the way one thinks about reality.

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34

mental practice or rehearsal

involves imagined, mental practice of performing a task as opposed to actual practice.

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35

intelligence

The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

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36

general intelligence (g)

General intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and other, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.

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Spearman’s g theory

Humans have one general intelligence that is at the heart of everything a person does. Mental abilities are like physical abilities and intelligence involves distinct abilities that correlate enough to define a small general intelligence factor.

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38

Thurstone’s theory (s factors)

56 different tests mathematically identifies seven clusters of primary mental abilities. Scoring well on one cluster was generally matched by high scores on other clusters, providing evidence of g.

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39

fluid intelligence (Gf)

Being able to think and reason abstractly and solve problems. Considered independent of learning, experience, and education.

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40

crystallized intelligence (Gc)

Knowledge that comes from prior learning and past experiences

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41

Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory

an integration of two previously established theoretical models of intelligence.

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42

Gardner’s multiple intelligences

Intelligence consists of multiple abilities that come in different packages. Eight relatively independent intelligences exist, including the verbal and mathematical aptitudes assessed by standard tests.

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43

Savant syndrome

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.

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44

Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence

Analytical, creative, and practical.

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45

Analytical intelligence

traditional academic problem solving

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46

Creative intelligence

ability to generate novel ideas.

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47

Practical intelligence

skill at handling everyday tasks.

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48

Social intelligence

A person’s ability to understand and manage interpersonal relationships.

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49

Emotional intelligence

The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.

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50

intelligence test

A method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others using numerical scores.

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51

achievement test

designed to assess what a person has learned.

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52

aptitude test

designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.

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53

mental age

a person’s mental ability expressed as the age at which the average person reaches that same ability.

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54

intelligence quotient (IQ)

defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus IQ= ma/ca x 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.

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55

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

Yields and overall intelligence score and separate scores for verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed.

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56

Normal curve

A frequency curve where most occurrences take place in the middle of the distribution and taper off on either side. Scores on aptitude tests tend to form a normal or bell-shaped curve around an average score.

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57

Reliability

Extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternative forms of the test, or on retesting.

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Validity

extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to measure or predict.

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59

predictive validity

success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predicts; assessed by computing the validity.

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60

intellectual disability

A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence test score of 70 or below and difficulty adapting to the demands of life.

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61

Cohort

The same people are restudied and retested over a long period of time.

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62

fluid intelligence and aging

peaks around age 30-40 then begins a slow decline until age 75 and then more rapidly after age 85.

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crystallized intelligence and aging

As we age and accumulate new knowledge and understanding, crystalized intelligence becomes stronger.

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64

Heritability

Intelligence test scores of identical twins raised together are nearly similar as those of the person taking the same test twice. This estimates the heritability of intelligence—the extent to which intelligence test score variation can be attributed to genetic variation.

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65

growth mindset

fostered with the belief that intelligence is changeable. Increased when effort rather than ability is encouraged. Made teens more resilient when frustrated by others.

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66

stereotype threat

a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.

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67

Motivation

Need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

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68

Instinct

genetically predisposed behaviors. Fixes, unlearned pattern throughout species. Genes predispose some species-typical behavior.

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69

physiological need

The biological requirements for human survival.

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70

drive-reduction theory

suggests that physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.

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71

Homeostasis

The tendency to maintain a balanced or consistent internal state; it involved the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry.

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72

Incentive

Involves a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.

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73

arousal theory

Humans are motivated to engage in behaviors that either increase or decrease arousal levels. High arousal levels motivate engagement in behaviors that will lower these levels. Low arousal levels motivate activities that can increase arousal—often through curiosity.

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74

Yerkes-Dodson law

Performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases.

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75

hierarchy of needs

Maslow viewed human motives as a pyramid. At the base are basic physiological needs; at the peal are the highest human needs.

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76

physiology of hunger

Humans automatically regulate caloric intake through a homeostatic system to prevent energy deficits and maintain stable body weight.

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77

glucose

The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. Triggers the feeling of hunger when low.

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78

set point

The point at which your “weight thermostat” may be set. When your body falls below this weight, increased hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may combine to restore lost weight.

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79

basal metabolic rate

The body’s resting rate of energy output.

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80

culture and taste

Spicier foods preferences in hotter climates. Pregnancy-related nausea and food aversion peak at 10 weeks in utero.

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81

situational influences on eating

Friends and food—presence of other amplifies natural behavior tendencies. Serving size is significant—quantity of consumed food is influenced by size of serving, dinnerware, and cultural norms. Selections stimulate—food variety stimulates eating. Nudging nutrition—one research team quadrupled the carrots taken by offering schoolchildren carrots before they picked up other foods in a lunch line.

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82

Obesity

Data from 188 countries reveal that a proportion of overweight adults increased from 29 to 27 percent among men over 33 years and from 30 to 38 percent among women. Extreme obesity carries a wide range of health risks.

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83

Asexual

Little to no sexual attraction to others.

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84

Testosterone

Most important male sex hormone. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in male stimulates the growth of the male sex organs during the fetal period and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

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85

Estrogens

Estradiol is secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributes to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.

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86

sexual response cycle

Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution.

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87

refractory period

After orgasm, men enter a refractory period that lasts from a few minutes to a day or more, during which they incapable of another orgasm.

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88

sexual dysfunction

Impair sexual arousal or functioning. Often involves sexual motivation, especially sexual energy and arousal. Males include erectile disorder and premature ejaculation. Females include female orgasmic disorder and female sexual interest/arousal disorder

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89

paraphilias

Experiencing sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urgers involving nonhuman objects, the suffering of self or others, or non-consenting persons

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90

AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)

A life threatening, sexually transmitted infection, caused by human immunodeficiency virus, depletes the immune system and leaves the person vulnerable to other infections.

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effects of sexually explicit material

may decrease sexual satisfaction with own partner and may changer perceptions about rape and other sexual violence.

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sexual orientation

Enduring sexual attraction toward members of one’s own sex, the other sex, or both sexes.

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causes of sexual orientation

Today’s psychologists view sexual orientation as neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed.

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sexual risk-taking

Having more than one sexual partner, changing sexual partners frequently, and having sexual contact without protection.

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95

affiliation need

The need to build relationships and to feel a part of a group.

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96

self-determination theory

Suggests that all humans have three basic psychological needs—autonomy, competence, and relatedness—that underlie growth and development

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Ostracism

Being socially excluded threatens the need to belong

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98

effects of social networking

People who spend more time online spend less time with friends. Lonely people spend more time than average online. Social networks are less likely to know their real-world neighbors. Social networking strengthens connections with people whom they already know.

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99

Narcissism

a mental condition in which people have an inflated sense of their own importance, a deep need for excessive attention and admiration, troubled relationships, and a lack of empathy for others.

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100

achievement motivation

A desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of skills or ideas; for control; and for attaining a high standard.

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