Ichthyology Fall22 Exam 2

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function of skeletal system

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1

function of skeletal system

protects and supports the soft organs

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2

cartilage

connective tissue that has an intercellular matrix composed of a complex rubbery protein

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3

chondrocytes

living cartilage cells

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4

lacune

spaces between the cartilaginous matrix

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5

bone

matrix held together by connective tissue fibers, within which cells are buried

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6

osteocytes

living bone cells

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7

types of bone

dermal bone, endochondral bone

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8

dermal bone

"membrane bone" forms directly through ossification of mesenchyme

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9

mesenchyme

loosely associated cells of mesoderm origin

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10

endochondral bone

"cartilage bone", initially formed w/in a cartilaginous matrix, only later ossified

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11

neurocranium

ossified skull, braincase

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12

chondrocranium

cartilaginous skull

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13

splanchocranium

portion of skull derived from visceral arches and composed of endochondral boen

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14

how the skull begins

formed from mesoderm cartilages at the anterior end of the notochord

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15

hagfish cranium development

stunted development, not completely enclosed skull, visceral arches not well developed

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16

lamprey cranium development

rudimentary, partial dorsal roof anteriorly positioned, posterior side walls, branchial basket well developed

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17

elasmobranch cranium development

solid piece of cartilage, without sutures, vertebrae have neural arch, centrum and persistent notochord

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18

teleost cranium development

sutured bones together, individual bones, dermal bones on top of cartilage

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19

functional units of fish skeleton

suspensorium, jaws, opercular apparatus, hyoid apparatus, gill arches, vertebral column, tail, and medial fins, paired fins

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20

ceratotrichia

cartilaginous fin supports of chondrichthys, not segmented, connected to basal cartilage

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21

lepidotrichia

bony fin support of osteichthyes, segmented, connected to pterygiophores

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22

myomeres

series of muscle blocks

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23

myosepta

sheets of connective tissue separated by myomeres

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24

horizontal septum

separator of upper and lower muscle mass in fishes

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25

epaxial muscle

upper muscles

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26

hypaxial muscles

lower muscles

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27

lateralis superficialis

red swimming muscle located between epaxial and hypaxial muscles

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28

protractors

dorsal and anal fin muscles that erect fins, make them stand up

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retractors

dorsal and anal fin muscles that depress fins, flattens them

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30

lateral inclinators

dorsal and anal fin muscles that spread out the soft rays

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31

abductors

paired fin muscles that pull ventrally and cranially

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32

adductors

paired fin muscles that pull dorsally and caudally

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33

white muscle

majority of post cranial muscle in most fishes

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34

white muscle uses

quick bursts of anaerobic movement, fatigues quickly, no myoglobin

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35

red muscle

muscle that's a thin, lateral, superficial sheet under the skin between epaxial and hypaxial muscle masses

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36

red muscle uses

continuous aerobic swimming, infused with capillaries, fast recovery of muscles

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37

pink muscle

contains fibers intermediate in character of red and white muscle

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38

pink muscle uses

intermediate swimming velocities, aerobic swimming, mosaic muscle

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39

caudal fin function

propulsion (oscillatory and undulatory), rudder

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40

medial fin function

undulatory propulsion, prevents roll

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41

pelvic fin function

controls pitch, up down movement

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42

pectoral fin function

propulsion, controls turning and brakes

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43

anguilliform locomotion

large side to side amplitude of the wave along the whole body

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44

subcarangiform locomotion

similar to anguilliform but only with posterior half of body

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45

carangiform locomotion

posterior body flexes, anterior half to 2/3 inflexible

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46

thunniform locomotion

significant lateral movement occurs only at the caudal fin and area near the narrow peduncle

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47

ostraciform locomotion

oscillation of caudal fin assisted with pectoral fins

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48

diodontiform locomotion

motion achieved by passing undulations down broad pectoral fins

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49

amiiform locomotion

undulation of usually long based dorsal fin, body axis often held straight while swimming

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50

gymnotiform locomotion

propulsion by undulation of long based anal fin

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51

balistiform locomotion

both anal and dorsal fins undulate to generate propulsion

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52

types of non-swimming locomotion

jet propulsion, terrestrial locomotion, walking, burrowing, jumping, gliding, flying

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53

pattern of blood flow

single pump and single circuit system, heart to gills to body back to heart

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54

number of heart chambers

4

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55

chambers in a series

sinus venosus to atrium to ventricle to conus or bulbus arteriosus

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56

sinus venosus

receive deoxygenate blood from posterior body

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atrium

regulates blood flow to heart

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ventricle

main pumping chamber of heart

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conus arteriosus

prevents back flow into ventricle

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bulbus arteriosus

dampens and maintains pressure in heart

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61

hagfish exceptions

4 hearts, main heart lacks conus arteriosus, pumping not synced by central nervous system

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lungfish exceptions

incomplete divided chamber (atrium), classified as 3 chambered heart

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efferent branchial arteries

takes oxygenated gills to rest of body

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afferent branchial arteries

takes deoxygenated blood to gills

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dorsal aorta

main route of transport of oxygenated blood to rest of body, becomes caudal artery upon entering heamal canal

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66

postcardinal vein

major return route of deoxygenated blood, empties into the common cardial vein then into sinus venosus

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67

fish blood

liquid plasma and red & white blood cells

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68

blood cell origin in hagfish

tissues surrounding the gut

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69

blood cell origin in lampreys

fatty tissue dorsal to the nerve cord

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70

blood cell origin in elasmobranchs

tissues associated with the esophagus, gonads, and spleen

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blood cell origin in bony fishes

thymus, kidney, and spleen

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72

blood oxygen affinity

when hemoglobin releases oxygen

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73

factors impacting blood oxygen affinity

partial pressure of oxygen in water, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in body, pH, temperature, activity of fish

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hemoglobin saturation

each molecule of hemoglobin can carry 4 molecules of oxygen

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75

oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve

the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin across a range of oxygen pressures

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76

factors impacting the O2 hemoglobin dissociation curve

pH and temperature

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77

bohr effect

hemoglobin's oxygen binding affinity is inversely related both to acidity and to the concentration of carbon dioxide

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78

physiological thermoregulation

rete mirabile for heat exchange and conservation, occurs in red muscle, blood flowing in opposite directions, exchange of heat perpendicular to flow

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79

problems breathing in water

lower oxygen concentration, water is more dense than air, water is more viscous than air

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80

warm water holds _______ oxygen than cold

less

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81

gills

specialized breathing apparatus composed of multiple highly vascularized filaments

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82

gill structure

gill arch with number of gill filaments lined with gill lamellae

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83

holobranch

full gill (made up of 2 halves)

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84

hemibranch

half a gill (one half); a single series of filaments

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85

gill lamellae

perpendicular structures along gill filaments

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86

gill function

site of oxygen exchange

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87

lamprey respiration

active respiration, expand and contract branchial area causing water to flow in and out

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88

hagfish repsration

active respiration, intake via nostrils, when buried in prey water comes in and out through gill opening behind last gill

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89

elasmobranch respiration

water intake through spiracles or gills, ram ventilation or pump

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90

elasmobranch gill structure

greater than or equal to 5 individual gill slits, gill arch and ray supports gill filaments, gill rakers protect filaments and collect food, septum separates them

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91

teleost respiration

ram ventilation and buccal/opercular cavity pumps

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92

surface area and thickness of gills is correlated to

activity level

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93

blood flows through lamellae _______ to water

counter current

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94

oxygen flow in fishes is

unidirectional

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95

buccal pump

mouth opens and fills with water, operculum is closed, opercular chamber expands causing negative pressure

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96

opercular pump

mouth is closed, operculum is open, buccal chamber contracts causing positive pressure pushing water over gills

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97

cost of breathing

High density and viscosity of water requires energy for ventilation of gills

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98

when oxygen needs increase fish...

breathe more often, take bigger gulps of water, recruit more lamellae

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99

all air breathing organs function...

only as oxygen absorbers

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100

Biological significance of air breathing

survival in oxygen poor habitats, utilize terrestrial food sources, abandon drying ponds in search of better habitat, invade new territories

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