Chem 120 Exam 5

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glycerides (type of lipid)

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142 Terms

1

glycerides (type of lipid)

glycerol-containing lipids

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nonglyceride lipids (type of lipid)

sphingolipids, steroids, and waxes

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complex lipids (type of lipid)

lipoproteins

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the 7 lipid functions

  1. energy source

  2. energy storage

  3. cell membrane structural components

  4. hormones

  5. vitamins and vitamin absorption

  6. protection

  7. insulation

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energy currency for lipid function

ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)

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Energy storage of lipids

in the form of triglycerides and stored in adipocyte cell

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lipid function: energy source

good energy source

(more than 2x the energy is produced than the same amount of carbohydrates)

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lipid function: cell membrane structural components

phosphoglycerides, sphingolipids, and steroids are basic structural components of all cell membranes.

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lipid function: hormones

critical chemical messengers that allow body tissue to communicate with each other

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lipid function: vitamins and vitamin absorption

lipid-soluble vitamine A,D,E, and K

Vitamin carrier transport to small intestines

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lipid function: protection

fat serves as a shock absorber for vital organs

4% of total body fat is reserved for this critical function

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lipid function insulation

fat stored under skin for cold temperatures

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saturated fatty acids

has no double bonds

higher MP and BP because of packing

solid at room temperature

<p>has no double bonds</p><p>higher MP and BP because of packing</p><p>solid at room temperature</p>
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unsaturated fatty acids

do have a double bond

the double bond is normally in a cis configuration

double bonds lower the melting temperature

(the cis configuration doesn’t allow fatty acids to pack as close together)

liquid at room temperature

<p>do have a double bond</p><p>the double bond is normally in a cis configuration</p><p>double bonds lower the melting temperature</p><p>(the cis configuration doesn’t allow fatty acids to pack as close together)</p><p>liquid at room temperature</p>
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eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docsahexenoic acid (DHA) where are they found?

Omega-3 Fatty acid

found in salmon, albacore tuna, sardines, lake trout and mackerel

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a-linolenic acid where is this found?

Omega-3 Fatty Acid

  • found in flax seed, soybean, canola

  • is essential fatty acid- must be acquired through diet

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Omega-3 structure

draw it out

<p>draw it out</p>
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prostaglandins (describe and draw) (Eicosanoids)

Eicosanoids: Omega-3 Fatty acid

  • act like hormones in controlling the body’s processes

  • made in most tissues

    • exert their effects on cells that produce them and cells in the immediate vicinity

<p>Eicosanoids: Omega-3 Fatty acid</p><ul><li><p>act like hormones in controlling the body’s processes</p></li><li><p>made in most tissues</p><ul><li><p>exert their effects on cells that produce them and cells in the immediate vicinity</p></li></ul></li></ul>
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6 Biological Processes Regulated by Eicosanoids (and structure)

blood clotting

inflammatory response

reproductive system

gastrointestinal tract

kidneys

respiratory tract

<p>blood clotting</p><p>inflammatory response</p><p>reproductive system</p><p>gastrointestinal tract</p><p>kidneys</p><p>respiratory tract</p>
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thromboxane

lipid

draw it out roughly

<p>lipid</p><p>draw it out roughly</p>
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Leukotriene

lipid

draw it out roughly

<p>lipid</p><p>draw it out roughly</p>
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aspirin

lipid

inhibits prostaglandin (stimulates inflammation response) synthesis and helps alleviate the pain

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glycerides and what you can make out of it.

lipid esters

esterification may occur at one, two, or all three alcohol positions producing

  • monoglyceride

  • diglycerides

  • triglyceride

<p>lipid esters</p><p>esterification may occur at one, two, or all three alcohol positions producing</p><ul><li><p>monoglyceride</p></li><li><p>diglycerides</p></li><li><p>triglyceride</p></li></ul>
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monoglyceride

lipid ester

has a fatty acid chain at one alcohol group of the glycerol

<p>lipid ester</p><p>has a fatty acid chain at one alcohol group of the glycerol</p>
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triglycerides

fatty acid chain at each alcohol group of the glycerol

<p>fatty acid chain at each alcohol group of the glycerol</p>
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Fats

come from animals, unless from fish, and are solid (higher MP) at room temp

have saturated fatty acid tails- pack closely together

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oils

come from plants, and are liquid (lower MP) at room temp

contain unsaturated fatty acid tails that are kinked- can’t pack as closely together

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esterification

reaction between the carboxyl of the fatty acid and the hydroxyl of an alcohol

<p>reaction between the carboxyl of the fatty acid and the hydroxyl of an alcohol</p>
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hydogenation

addition reaction of H2 converts unsaturated to saturated fat, food industry

<p>addition reaction of H2 converts unsaturated to saturated fat, food industry</p>
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acid hydrolysis

produces the fatty acids and glycerol, a reverse of esterification

<p>produces the fatty acids and glycerol, a reverse of esterification</p>
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saponification

produces the fatty acid salts and glycerol; makes soap

<p>produces the fatty acid salts and glycerol; makes soap</p>
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what is phospholipid

any lipid containing phosphorus

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what do phospholipids contain

  • glycerol

  • fatty acid

  • phosphoric acid with an amino alcohol

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what is amphipathic

are phospholipids amphipathic?

have hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains

yes they are…

  • head is hydrophilic, tail is hydrophobic

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structure of phospholipids

replace an end fatty acid of a triglyceride with a phosphoric acid linked to an amino alcohol

<p>replace an end fatty acid of a triglyceride with a phosphoric acid linked to an amino alcohol</p>
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phosphoglycerides in cells

structural component of cell membranes

suspended in water, they spontaneously rearrange into ordered structures

  • hydrophobic group to center

  • hydrophilic groups to water

  • basis of membrane structure

<p>structural component of cell membranes</p><p>suspended in water, they spontaneously rearrange into ordered structures</p><ul><li><p>hydrophobic group to center</p></li><li><p>hydrophilic groups to water</p></li><li><p>basis of membrane structure</p></li></ul>
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sphingosine (sphingolipids) and it’s categories

  • nitrogen-containing

  • amphipathic, like phospholipids

    • polar head group

    • two nonpolar fatty acid tails (1 being sphingosine)

  • structural component of cellular membranes

  • two major categories

    • sphingomyelins

    • glycosphingolipids

<ul><li><p>nitrogen-containing</p></li><li><p>amphipathic, like phospholipids</p><ul><li><p>polar head group</p></li><li><p>two nonpolar fatty acid tails (1 being sphingosine)</p></li></ul></li><li><p>structural component of cellular membranes</p></li><li><p>two major categories</p><ul><li><p>sphingomyelins</p></li><li><p>glycosphingolipids</p></li></ul></li></ul>
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sphingomyelins

phospholipids

  • structural lipid of nerve cell membranes

  • myelin sheath feature

<p>phospholipids</p><ul><li><p>structural lipid of nerve cell membranes</p></li><li><p>myelin sheath feature</p></li></ul>
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glycosphingolipids

phospholipid

  • built on a ceramide

  • cerebrosides have a single monosaccharide head group

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2 Examples of glycosphingolipids and structures

glucocerebroside

galactocerebroside

glucocerebroside- in membranes of macrophages

galactocerebroside- in membranes of brain cells

<p>glucocerebroside- in membranes of macrophages</p><p>galactocerebroside- in membranes of brain cells</p>
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steroid

are synthesized from the five-carbon isoprene unit

part of a diverse collection of lipids called isoprenoids

  • terpenes

contain the steroid carbon skeleton

  • a collection of 4 fused carbon rings

<p>are synthesized from the five-carbon isoprene unit</p><p>part of a diverse collection of lipids called isoprenoids</p><ul><li><p>terpenes</p></li></ul><p>contain the steroid carbon skeleton</p><ul><li><p>a collection of 4 fused carbon rings</p></li></ul>
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LDL

“bad cholesterol”

carry cholesterol from liver to peripheral tissue

helps regulate cholesterol levels in those tissues

frequently 40% of the plasma cholesterol

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HDL

“Good cholesterol”

picks up cholesterol for removal for recycling

made in liver

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lipoprotein structure

contain:

neutral lipid core (cholesterol ester or triacylglycerol)

surrounded by a layer of

  • phospholipid

  • cholesterol

  • protein

structure of a soap micelle and a lipoprotein are very similar

<p>contain:</p><p>neutral lipid core (cholesterol ester or triacylglycerol)</p><p>surrounded by a layer of</p><ul><li><p>phospholipid</p></li><li><p>cholesterol</p></li><li><p>protein</p></li></ul><p>structure of a soap micelle and a lipoprotein are very similar</p>
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chylomieron

transport triglycerides from intestines to other tissue

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VLDL

bind triglycerides synthesized in liver and carry to adipose tissue and other tissue for storage

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Familial hypercholesterolemia

LDL receptor was discovered during an investigation of this genetic disease

  • when a cell needs cholesterol, it synthesizes the receptor, which migrates to a coated region of the membrane

  • the “captured” cholesterol is absorbed by endocytosis

  • failure to make the receptor or a defective receptor is the most common problem encountered for familial hypercholesterolemia.

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receptor-mediated Endocytosis drawn out

draw out

<p>draw out</p>
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lipitor

synthesis of cholesterol by interfering with the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase

  • blocks synthesis of Cholesterol inside cells

  • stimulates synthesis of LDL-receptor proteins

  • more LDL can then enter cells lowering cholesterol levels in plasma

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each type of cell has a unique membrane composition with varying percentages of…

lipids, proteins, and some carbohydrates

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fluid mosaic model

of a lipid bilayer- lipids are can move (are “fluid”) and are interspersed with proteins much like a mosaic

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what does the degree of saturated vs. unsaturated fatty acids and amount of cholesterol effect

rigidity/fluidity of membrane

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peripheral membrane proteins

are bound to membranes primarily through interactions with integral protiens

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transmembrane proteins (integral membrane proteins)

embedded in and extend through the membrane

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drawn out membrane layer with peripheral and integral proteins

drawn out

<p>drawn out</p>
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Fluid Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure drawn out

drawn out

<p>drawn out</p>
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essential fatty acid

any fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the body

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Protein meaning

“of first importance”

most abundant macromolecule in the cell

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polymers of proteins

amino acid → folded protein

<p>amino acid → folded protein</p>
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8 functions of Proteins and a brief description

structure

  • coverings and structure (collagen)

catalyst

  • enzymes (accelerate chemical reactions)

movement

  • muscles, flagella

regulation

  • regulate metabolism, gene expression

transport

  • move material around in the body

hormones

  • chemical messengers

protection

  • antibodies, blood clotting

storage

  • storage of materials

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draw amino acid molecule

knowt flashcard image
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out of 20 how many amino acids are stereoisomers

19/20

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Zwitterion

a molecule that contains positive and negative charges in equal amounts to have a net zero charge

<p>a molecule that contains positive and negative charges in equal amounts to have a net zero charge</p>
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amino acid Zwitterion pH

At physiological pH (7.0)

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are amino acids soluble

Amino acids are all soluble in water because of zwitterion formation.

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what will happen to the charges of amino acids at extremely acidic and basic conditions

+=acid

-=basic

<p>+=acid</p><p>-=basic</p>
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isoelectric point

pH at which a sample of amino acids or proteins has an equal number of positive and negative charges

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D and L isomers drawn out

L is the naturally occurring one

<p>L is the naturally occurring one</p>
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hydrophobic

water fearing

non-polar neutral-- no charge

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hydrophillic

water loving

polar

acidic → negatively charged side chains (-)

basic → positively charged side chain (+)

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peptide bond

an amide bond between the a-amino group of one amino acid and the carboxylic acid of another amino acid eliminating a molecule of water

<p>an amide bond between the a-amino group of one amino acid and the carboxylic acid of another amino acid eliminating a molecule of water</p>
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peptides

shorter chains of amino acids

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dipeptide

when 2 amino acids are condensed or dehydrated

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polypeptides

longer chains are of amino acids

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N-terminus

the end containing the amino acid with a free -NH3+ group/amino group

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C-terminus

the end containing the amino acid with a free -COO- group/carboxyl group

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primary structure

amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain “beads on a string”

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second structure

the primary sequence of the polypeptide folds into regularly repeating structures called the secondary structure

  • a-helix (most common)

  • B- pleated sheet

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tertiary structure

three-dimensional folding pattern of a protein due to side chain interactions

  • fibrous- insoluble

  • globular- soluble

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in 3* and 4* conformations are stabilized in four ways

  1. covalent bonds: disulfide bonds (S-S)

  2. hydrogen bonds

  3. salt bridges: the attraction between ions of opposite charge. + attracted to -

  4. hydrophobic interactions: polar groups outward towards water; non-polar groups inward away from water-- London dispersion

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quaternary protein structure

2 or more polypeptide chains held together

4 subunits

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Fibrous proteins

proteins arranged in fibers or sheets, insoluble in water. Exp: hair, nails, horns, collagen

  • mechanical strength

  • structural components

  • movement

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Globular proteins

protein with a generally spherical shape, soluble in water Exp: myoglobin, hemoglobin, immunoglobins

  • transport

  • regulatory

  • enzymes

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hemoglobin

is the oxygen-transport protein of higher animalsm

<p>is the oxygen-transport protein of higher animalsm</p>
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myoglobin

is the oxygen storage protein of skeletal muscle

<p>is the oxygen storage protein of skeletal muscle</p>
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prosthetic group

a nonprotein molecule that binds to a protein

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Heme

oxygen binds to it, it is a prosthetic group

it has iron (Fe2+) in it

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protein denaturation

when the protein unfolds, i.e. the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure is disrupted, and the protein loses its 3-D shape

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coaguation

proteins are unfolded and entangled

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6 causes of protein denaturation

-temp (coagulation)

-pH (Acids and Bases)

-organic solvents like alcohol

-detergents

-heavy metals

-mechanical stress (stirring,whipping, and shaking)

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catalyst

chemical that increases the rate of a chemical reaction

-metals

-polymers

-proteins

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enzyme and naming of one

a biological catalyst, typically a protein

add -ase to end of name

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oxidoreductase definition

catalyzes an oxidation/reduction reaction(transfers electron)

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transferase definition

transfers a functional group

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hydrolase definition

causes hydrolysis reaction (addition of H2O to break a bond)

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ligase definition

typically joins pieces together and often breaks/makes C-O, C-C, or C-N bonds(DNA ligase in DNA replication)

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Isomerase definition

rearranges functional groups(change shape)

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lyase definition

forms/breaks double bonds by removing/adding groups other than by hydrolysis(look for double bonds)

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oxidoreductase reaction

knowt flashcard image
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transferase reaction

knowt flashcard image
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