Sociology Final 9, 10, 11, 12

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Which of the following scenarios is most likely to occur to a patient in Germany?

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1

Which of the following scenarios is most likely to occur to a patient in Germany?

Marie understands she has the option of purchasing health insurance.

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2

Which of the following countries does not guarantee health care to its citizens?

United States

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3

Which of the following scenarios would be most likely to occur in China today?

Huan's doctor informs her she is more likely to die from a chronic disease like cancer than an infectious disease like influenza.

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4

All of the following is true of Mexico's health care system EXCEPT that

millions of Mexicans cannot enroll in the government run health insurance program because they lack birth certificates.

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5

Compared to US citizens, Canadians have

longer life expectancy

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6

Which of the following contradictions characterizes Canada's health care system?

it is a single-payer system, but it is also decentralized.

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7

Most funding for hospitals in the Democratic Republic of Congo comes from

donations from the more developed nations

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8

Despite having a lower per capita income than the U.S., China's life expectancy is just a few years lower. Is this an example of health care convergence?

No, because China's life expectancy increase is a result of many factors, not just the health care system.

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9

General practitioners in Great Britain

All of these are correct

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10

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) attempted to address

consumer choice

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11

Health outcomes in the Democratic Republic of Congo are

among the worst in the world

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12

Has the Democratic Republic of the Congo undergone epidemiological transition?

No, because preventable diseases like cholera and malaria are still rampant.

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13

Life expectancy in Mexico is

only slightly lower than in the US

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14

The U.S. can benefit from which of the experiences of health care in other countries?

all of these are correct

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15

Which of the following has been used to control costs in one or more health care systems of Canada, Great Britain, Germany, China, Mexico, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo?

all of these are correct

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16

Infant mortality and life expectancy in China are now

only slightly below those of the industrialized nations

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17

Health insurance that covers all medically necessary services, is universal, portable, and accessible to all regardless of ability to pay can be found in

Canada

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18

Which of the following is true?

Health care is rationed in both the United States and Great Britain.

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19

Which of the following can make it difficult to control a nation's health care costs?

the presence of many different health insurance providers

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20

Which of the following is the most serious problem in the Canadian health care system?

waiting times for non-emergency care

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21

Hospice care disproportionately serves

patients with cancer

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22

By the late 19th century,

voluntary hospitals increasingly emphasized their commitment to serving the poor

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23

Which of the following is a result of commodification?

keeping nursing home residents strapped to chairs during the day

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24

Which of the following most closely resembles the average nursing home resident today?

A White woman over the age of 75.

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25

The history of CPR illustrates

Americans' discomfort with the inevitability of sudden death

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26

US citizens who need nursing home care

often become impoverished as a result

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27

Which treatment would most likely occur in a modern US hospital?

giving IV antibiotics to a person with pneumonia

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28

Which of the following is true?

A nationwide detection and treatment program would increase the national costs of dealing with prostate cancer.

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29

According to sociologists, technology is

a tool adopted for a variety of cultural and medical reasons.

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30

The U.S. supports family caregiving by

allowing up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave from work annually to care for family members for full-time, permanent employees.

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31

In a nursing home, the nutritional content of the food served is carefully tracked. However, many residents do not eat all of the food served to them because it is cold and unappetizing, and none of the staff will heat it up for them. This is an example of

documenting care rather than providing care

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32

Timothy Diamond uses the phrase "commodification" to refer to the process of

thinking of nursing home residents and workers in economic terms.

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33

During the first half of the 19th century, hospitals differed from almshouses because

almshouses were run by paid staff, whereas hospitals were run by volunteers.

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34

Dr. Zimbar recommends that all of his male patients over the age of 50 undergo PSA screening for prostate cancer. Is this an example of the technological imperative?

Yes, because it is recommended despite the fact that it is highly inaccurate.

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35

Which of the following has contributed to the rise in home care?

the deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill

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36

In recent years, hospitals have addressed financial concerns by

merging with other hospitals

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37

Which statement most accurately reflects the reality of family caregiving?

"Caring for my disabled son is the hardest thing I have ever done, but also the most rewarding."

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38

An 87-year-old woman has advanced heart disease. A triple bypass is likely to extend her life by at least 6 months, but the recovery from that surgery would be difficult, so the doctor recommends against the surgery. This is an example of

passive euthanasia

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39

Which of the following is true of modern hospice care?

the majority of hospices are for profit

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40

Which of the following is not a technology?

fruit salads with high vitamin C content

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41

Which of the following scenarios is an example of a practice protocol?

A doctor must try a less costly therapy prior to scheduling a patient for bypass surgery.

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42

Respect for allopathic medicine had grown by the year 1900 because

all of these are correct

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43

All of the following have threatened medical dominance EXCEPT

the decline of public health

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44

Which two conflicting trends are happening at the same time?

Americans trust the health care system less as their trust in their own doctors remains high.

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45

The ways in which medical residents talk about patients sometimes suggest that residents

view displays of emotions as weakness

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46

Nineteenth century allopathic medical schools

trained students primarily through lectures.

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47

All of the following exemplify how gender, race, and class impact doctors' interactions with patients EXCEPT:

A White patient with diabetes has his leg amputated, and a Black patient with diabetes does not

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48

Since the 1960s,

the percentage of health care institutions owned by investor-owned corporations has increased.

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49

A doctor who strongly believes in the core medical values described in your textbook would be most likely to

become a surgeon

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50

Which of the following is an example of an attitude that deviates from the basic elements of modern-day medical culture?

A doctor convinces a reluctant son to give his dying father a feeding tube.

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51

In the 19th century, it was more likely that a woman would die in childbirth at a hospital than giving birth at home with a midwife because

midwives' hands tended to be cleaner due to the performance of chores like laundry.

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52

The Flexner Report

described the poor facilities and lax requirements of many medical schools.

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53

Medical culture stresses that doctors should

value clinical experience more than scientific knowledge.

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54

The AMA's power has declined in part because of

the significant percentage of doctors who choose not to join.

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55

Doctors' mechanistic model of the body may encourage them to

distrust natural bodily processes.

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56

All of the following would be said by a medical student who is learning medical values EXCEPT:

"I won't prescribe that drug because the research shows it's not effective."

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57

Which scenario would be most likely to occur in medical education?

A female student is told by a superior that medicine is not a female occupation.

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58

Graduating medical students

can expect an average debt of $190,000.

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59

Doctors have lost public support because

all of these are correct

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60

Compared to conditions in 1900, by the late 1920s

the quality of medical training had improved considerably.

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61

Which of the following exemplifies the effect of corporatization?

Margaret, the charge nurse at a hospital, has seen significant decreases in nurse satisfaction rating

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62

Over the years, chiropractors have

improved their status by increasing educational standards for entry into the field.

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63

Which of the following is an example of the gender stereotyping that was prevalent in the early years of nursing?

A nurse's demands for respect and higher wages is deemed "unladylike.

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64

Is chiropractic a complementary therapy?

Yes, because doctors rarely refer patients to chiropractors.

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65

Which of the following meets the sociological definition of a profession?

osteopaths

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66

Parents' decisions against vaccinating their children

have led to outbreaks of measles in the United States

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67

Which of the following helped doctors gain control over childbirth?

popular prejudice against immigrants, women, and non-whites.

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68

Men who enter nursing

are overrepresented in emergency room work and underrepresented in pediatrics.

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69

Which of the following is true?

Doctors have worked to strip acupuncture of its grounding in traditional Chinese medical philosophy.

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70

Osteopathy is characterized by what contradiction?

As the status of osteopaths have risen closer to that of allopathic doctors, they have lost independence.

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71

Which of the following belongs to an occupation that is both limited and marginal?

direct-entry midwives

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72

Which of the following statements is most likely to be said by a patient of Curanderos?

"I see a Curandero because I am not a citizen, and I'm afraid if I go to the hospital I will be deported."

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73

Florence Nightingale 's model of nursing did all of the following EXCEPT

enhanced the efforts to recognize nursing as a profession.

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74

In the early 20th century,

nursing schools regarded student nurses as a cheap source of labor.

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75

The history of osteopathy suggests how difficult it is to

maintain an independent and unique identity while becoming a parallel profession.

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76

When doctors first began medicalizing pregnancy, many women welcomed the change because it

offered guilt-free access to painkillers.

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77

Sociologists consider nurses semi-professionals, rather than professionals, because

nurses have considerable autonomy, status, and training, but remain subordinate to doctors.

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78

Was the AMA's attempt to fight the status of chiropractic successful?

No, because the demand to improve training standards ended up strengthening chiropractic practice.

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79

Optometrists have obtained considerable social status by limiting their treatments to only one part of the body. This suggests that optometry is a

limited but not marginal occupation.

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80

Which of the following is true?

With low-risk populations, home birth conducted by experienced direct-entry midwives is as safe as doctor-attended hospital births.

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81

Critics of the bioethics movement argue that

the committees mostly protect the legal interests of researchers and clinicians, rather than patients.

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82

What has been the impact of bioethics on medical education?

While ethics are discussed in medical education, they tend to be presented in mostly a lecture format, rather than allowing students to engage with the issues.

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83

The main sociological concern regarding the Willowbrook Hepatitis Study and the Tuskegee Syphilis study would be

that both groups of participants were chosen because they had less social power and status

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84

Which of the following is an example of implicit rationing of health care?

A patient cannot get bypass surgery to avoid a heart attack because they are uninsured and cannot afford it.

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85

In both the Willowbrook Hepatitis study and the Tuskegee Syphilis study, participants and the parents of participants agreed to participate in the study and were given treatment by medical professionals. Were the principles of the Nuremberg code violated in these studies?

Yes, because in both cases, participants were denied treatment or prevention of a disease so that researchers could observe it.

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86

"Baby Fae's" parents agreed to the baboon heart transplant:

after the hospital's Institutional Review Board approved it.

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87

Which of the following statements is true?

The Nazi philosophy was grounded in part in eugenics.

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88

Which scenario is an example of a conflict of interest?

An institutional review board of a pharmaceutical company allows genetic testing as a component of the research their company is doing on a new drug.

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89

All of the following helped bring about the rise of bioethics EXCEPT

the Nuremburg Trials.

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90

Institutional Review Boards have impacted medical research in all of the following ways EXCEPT:

the elimination of all ethical abuses in research

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91

The Willowbrook Hepatitis study and the Tuskegee Syphilis experiment:

were similar, because they finally ended after the studies were exposed in the media.

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92

The Karen Quinlan case demonstrated the problems caused when doctors

extend life without regard to the quality of that life.

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93

Research on the impact of the bioethics movement suggests that doctors

can assert their discretion over patient care despite rules of patient autonomy.

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94

Which of the following statements about stem cell research is true?

Opponents equate harvesting stem cells to killing humans.

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95

Research suggests that doctors can assert their decisions in clinical practice by

. All of these are correct.

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96

The Tuskegee Syphilis study is considered racist because

d. it hypothesized that African Americans and Whites were impacted differently by syphilis.

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97

A student takes Adderall before starting work on a term paper. Is this an example of cosmetic psychopharmacology?

Yes, even if the student has ADHD, they should wait until after their work is done to take Adderall.

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98

During the 1960s, hospital selection committees

b. typically decided who would receive kidney dialysis based in part on social criteria.

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99

All of the following were true of the Nazi's eugenics laws EXCEPT:

The Nazis' eugenics policies weakened as they rose to power and other nations became aware of them

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100

CRISPR technologies

can possibly be very beneficial to human health.

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