Biology Lab Exam 2

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1
<p>What is this?</p>

What is this?

Amoeba

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<p>1</p>

1

Nucleus

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3
<p>2</p>

2

Cytoplasm

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4
<p>3</p>

3

Pseudopodia

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5
<p>4</p>

4

Contractile vacuole

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<p>5</p>

5

Food Vacuole

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7
<p>What is this?</p>

What is this?

Epithelial cheek cell

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8
<p>1</p>

1

Nucleus

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9
<p>2</p>

2

Cell membrane

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10
<p>3</p>

3

Cytoplasm

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11
<p>What is this</p>

What is this

Tomato Pulp

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12
<p>1</p>

1

Chromoplasts

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13
<p>2</p>

2

Cell Wall

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14
<p>What is this</p>

What is this

tomato skin

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<p>1</p>

1

Cell Wall

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<p>2</p>

2

Chromoplast

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17
<p>What is this</p>

What is this

Elodea

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18
<p>1</p>

1

Cell wall

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19
<p>2</p>

2

Cell Membrane

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20
<p>3</p>

3

Central vacuole

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<p>4</p>

4

Chloroplasts

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<p>5</p>

5

Cytoplasm. Space surrounding chloroplasts

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23
<p>Remember this for elodea (type ok)</p>

Remember this for elodea (type ok)

OK

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<p>What is this</p>

What is this

Human Skin Cell

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<p>1</p>

1

Stratum Basale

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26
<p>2</p>

2

Stratum Spinosum

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27
<p>3</p>

3

Stratum granulosum

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<p>4</p>

4

Stratum Lucidum

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<p>5</p>

5

Stratum corneum

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<p>6</p>

6

Dermis

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<p>7</p>

7

Epidermis

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<p>8</p>

8

Dermal papillae

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33

What were the positive and negative controls in this experiment? Why are they necessary?

The positive control was the complete nutrients and the negative control was the water. They were used to show what a positive and negative result would be.

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34

Which treatment(s) had the most growth? Explain why

The complete nutrients had the most growth because it had all the nutrients it may need. Then the potassium and nitrogen were next because those are the essential elements to growing a plant but didn’t have nitrogen or potassium. The next one was miracle gro.

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Deficiency in Nitrogen

Reduces Chlorophyll content, Older leaves turn yellow and die, stunts plants growth. Involved in photosynthesis, metabolism, genetic info, biochemical functions, cellular energy

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deficiency in phophorus

Root growth and development stop, slender stalk and stunted growth, leaf looks burnt while other leaves look purple. photosynthesis, seed formation and development, growth and reproduction, cellular energy

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deficiency in potassium

Show spots of marginal burning from tip, interveinal chlorosis begins from base. Seeds and fruits shrink. Photosynthesis, enzyme activation, genetic info, biochemical pathways, cellular energy

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38
<p>Which of the three elements</p>

Which of the three elements

Phosphorus

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39
<p>Which of the three elements</p>

Which of the three elements

Potassium

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40
<p>Which of the three elements</p>

Which of the three elements

Nitrogen

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41

Two essential macromolecules found in living organisms that require nitrogen. How are these elements used by plants.

Proteins- enzymes for transportation, structural, metabolism. DNA/RNA- Nitrogenous bases. ATP- cellular energy

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42

What is gene expression

the process by which the instructions in our DNA are converted into a functional product. If we change one part of the cookie recipe it will change the the result of the cookie.

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43

Is mRNA synthesis required for the switch from 1D – 2D growth in ferns? How do you know based on your observations?

mRNA is required for growth because the thiouracil was swill 1D without the mRNA and the only difference between it and the control was the control could use RNA. RNA is used to translate it and make it become 2D

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44

What is 2-thiouracil? What problem does it cause during gene expression?

It replaces the Uracil in the RNA chain and does not allow RNA to bind to the DNA in order to carry out its process. Then the gene cannot be expressed correctly causing the protein to be different.

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45

What was the purpose of (A) normal fern medium

We needed to use it as a control to see what a normal fern that goes through normal replication processes would look like

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46

What was the purpose of the “reverse control” (C) (2-thiouracil + uracil)?

To see if excess uracil could change the result of a plant having 2 thiouracil disrupting the mRNA. It proved to still show 2D growth as a reverse control

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47

If the switch from 1D to 2D growth is due to previously synthesized and stored mRNA, what would you expect to see in each treatment?

That all of them would present 2D growth

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48
<p>What is this</p>

What is this

Fern Sporangium

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49
<p>1</p>

1

Annulus

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50
<p>2</p>

2

Spores

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<p>3</p>

3

Stomium

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DNA structure

Deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nitrogenous bases are bonded by hydrogen bonds to deoxyribose and phosphate. Nucleotides bond and form a double helix

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Base pairing for DNA

adenine (A) and thymine (T). Cytosine (C) and Guanine (G)

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DNA vs. RNA

DNA- Deoxyribose nucleic acid. Double stranded. Thymine

RNA- Ribonucleic acid. Single stranded. Contains uracil

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55

What are some reasons that cells undergo replication

It is used to produce identical DNA molecules. A daughter cell is then made and now the organism can transfer genetic information to its offspring.

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What direction is DNA synthesized in

5’ to 3’ direction

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<p>What is this</p>

What is this

DNA

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<p>1</p>

1

Hydrogen Bonds

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<p>2</p>

2

Deoxyribose (Sugar)

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<p>3</p>

3

Nitrogenous base

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<p>4</p>

4

Phosphate

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What nitrogenous base replaces thymine in RNA

Uracil

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63

What is the function of helicase

Unwind and separate DNA in preparation for replication

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What is the function of polymerase

Catalyzes the synthesis of new DNA. It also adds complimentary nucleotides

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What is meant by semi-conservative DNA replication

Each of the daughter cells have a new strand and a old strand connected to each other

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66
<p>What is this</p>

What is this

DNA Synthesis of Lagging Strand

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<p>1</p>

1

Lagging Strand

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<p>2</p>

2

Leading Strand

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<p>3</p>

3

Replication fork

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70
<p>4</p>

4

Okazaki fragments

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<p>5</p>

5

Helicase

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<p>6</p>

6

Template DNA strands

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Central Dogma of Biology

Conversion DNA to RNA to Protein. The first step is transcription. Then after the copy has been produced named mRNA, it then leaves and and is transcribed to become a protein

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Autosomes

Chromosomes 1-22. Non sex chromosomes

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Sex chromosomes

Chromosomes 23. Sex linked

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Homologous chromosome

same chromosome. One from mom and one from dad. Same length, banding pattern, and are matched gene for gene except in male

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karyotype

Image of an individuals chromosomes lined up

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Gene

Section DNA that codes for a specific trait.

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Allele

alternate forms of the same gene where a mutation has caused a variation in the gene and therefore the protein that is produced

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Genotype

The combined alleles we inherit from each parent for a specific trat determines this. Actual alleles we posses

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Phenotype

the physical expression of a genotype

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homozygous

Two copies of the same allele

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heterozygous

inheritance of two different alleles

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What does it mean to be a "carrier" of a trait

Carrying a recessive allele that is masked

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Autosomal dominant

Has trait = A_ (AA or Aa), Not affected = aa

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Autosomal recessive

Has trait = aa, Not affected = A_ (AA or Aa)

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X linked dominant

Male --> Has trait = XAY, Not affected = XaY

Female --> Has trait = XAX_ (XAXA or XAXa), Not affected = XaXa

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X linked Recessive

 Male --> Has trait = XaY, Not affected = XAY

Female --> Has trait = XaXa, Not affected = XAX_ (XAXA or XAXa)

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What you need to be a carrier

Have a dominant gene and recessive gene.

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Antigens

Type of alleles that code for surface proteins

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Antibodies

blood proteins that detect and attack foreign antigens

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92
<p>What is this</p>

What is this

Human blood

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<p>1</p>

1

Leukocyte

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<p>2</p>

2

Platelet

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<p>3</p>

3

Erythrocyte

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Blood type A can donate to

A or AB

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Blood type B can donate to

B or AB

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Blood type AB can donate to

AB

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99

Blood type O can donate to

Everyone

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Blood type A can receive

A or O

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