Bio Exam

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About how much of Earth’s land surface is used for agriculture?

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1

About how much of Earth’s land surface is used for agriculture?

38%

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2

Crop rotation does all of the following except

Let fields lie unused

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3

Cost and time efficient industrial agriculture requires that large areas be planted with

a single crop

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4

Because of the green revolution between 1961 and 2008, food production

increased 150% while the population doubled

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5

A secure food supply depends on all of the following except

increased use of fertilizer

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6

The organic matter in soil includes

living and decomposing organisms

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7
<p>Which soil conservation technique is used in the picture</p>

Which soil conservation technique is used in the picture

Shelterbelts

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8

Arid and semiarid lands are prone to desertification because

the principal cannot meet the growing human demand for water

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9

Traditional agriculture may use all of the following except

fossil fuels

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10
<p>Which soil conservation technique is shown in the picture</p>

Which soil conservation technique is shown in the picture

Contour farming

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11

Industrial food production includes

all of the above

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12

Soil texture is based on

particle size

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13

The soil type with the largest average particle size is

sand

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14

Mineral matter and organic matter make up 50% of soil. What makes up the remaining 50%

Water and air

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15

The base geological material from which soil is formed

parent material

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16

The practice of planting seeds from the plants you like most

selective breeding

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17

What two things “powered” traditional agriculture

people and animal

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18

Along with industrial agriculture came an increased usage of

all of the above: fossil fuels, fertilizers, and pesticides

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19

Term for land that is suited for farming

arable

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20

GMO’s refer to

organisms who have had their DNA modified

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21

Which of the following is accepted on an “organic” farm

natural fertilizers

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22

More than 97% of Earth’s total water supply is found in

oceans

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23

The water table is the upper limit of the

zone of saturation

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24

You must build a model of an aquifer for a science project. What material would be the best to use of a layer that will hold water

A permeable material, such as gravel

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25

One process used to obtain fresh water from salt water is called

desalination

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26

Globally, most freshwater used by humans is for

agricultural irrigation

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27

The All-American Canal, which brings water from the Colorado River to farm fields in California is an example of

water diversion

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28

Which of the following does not contribute to water conservation

watering lawns during peak sunlight hours, when plants need water the most

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29

An oil spill is an example of

point-source pollution

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30

Water that flows over land and has not been absorbed into the ground is called

runoffAll

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31

of the land area that supplies water to a particular river system is called a

watershed

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32

The buildup of salts in the surface layers of soil is called

salinization

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33

Groundwater mining is the process of

withdrawing groundwater faster than it can be replaced

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34

Chlorine is often added during water treatment to

kill disease-causing organisms

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35

Which of the following is not a major source of renewable energy

natural gas

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36

Which two kinds of renewable energy use turbines

wind and hydropower

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37

The use of coal power has ___ in recent years

decreased

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38

Which current crisis can renewable resources alleviate

global warming

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39

What is a hidden cost of fossil fuel energy production

poor air quality

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40

Which of the following includes only biotic factors

population

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41

Which of the following is not included in a typical age structure diagram

the population’s historical growth

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42

Which of the following equations summarizes population growth

(immigration + birth) - (emigration + deaths)

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43

A group of individuals that interbreed and produce fertile offspring is a common definition for

species

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44

Which of the following describes a population that is distributed evenly across an area

uniform

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45

Which of the following terms describes seasonal movement of individuals into and out of a population

migration

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46

The largest population size a given environment can sustainably support is known as its

carrying capacity

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47

A population that increases 5% every year is said to be experiencing

exponential growth

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48

If you were to graph the population growth of the Kaibab deer from 1906 to 1923, what would you see

A J-shaped upward curve showing a very rapid increase

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49

Deer can live 10-25. Which of the following most likely describes an age structure diagram of the Kaibab deer population in 1923?

A triangle with a very wide base and narrow top

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50

Which population of flamingos is more dense

40 flamingos in a 10 square meter area

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51

In which of the following pairs do both organisms belong to the same population

Two bass living in Lake Harmony

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52

A population of some species is most likely to grow exponentially

when the species moves into a new area of suitable habitat

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53

A population will most likely deplete the resources of its environment if the population

grows beyond carrying capacity

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54

What type of distribution is most common in nature

clumped

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55
<p>Using the diagram, what type of population growth do you expect from the county with the age structure diagram on the left</p>

Using the diagram, what type of population growth do you expect from the county with the age structure diagram on the left

rapid growth

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56

Which of the following is not a mechanism for biological evolution

inheritance of acquired characteristics

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57

A caterpillar eats some grass. A bird eats a caterpillar. A fox eats a bird. Which of the following food chains represents this series of feeding relationships

Grass → caterpillar → bird → fox

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58

Which of the following organisms is often a pioneer species: grasses, lichen, otters, spruces

lichen

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59

Organisms can be considered keystone species only if they

exert strong community-wide effects

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60

Which of the following is an example of artificial selection

throroughbred racehorses have been bred for speed

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61

The yellow perch is a fish that breeds in spring. A single female can produce up to 40,000 eggs at one time. This species is an example of which of the key ideas of natural selection

individuals produce an excess of offspring

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62

In 2002, two populations of Darwin’s finches were studies. After a drought that caused only large seeds to be available to the birds, they found that natural selection favored those birds that had larger beaks and bodies. Once the rains returned and smaller seeds became more abundant, however, natural selection favored those birds that had smaller beaks and bodies. Which of the following processes is the best interpretation of this scenario

microevolution

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63

Which of the following statements is not correct: most speciation is thought to occur via allopatric speciation, speciation cannot occur without geographic isolation, speciation can be caused by either natural selection or random processes, geographic isolation can eventually lead to reproductive isolation

speciation cannot occur without geographic isolation

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64

Which of the following conditions does not define the fundamental niche of a species: humidity, predators, temperature, pH

predators

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65

Some scientists estimate that the current global extinction rate is about 30,000 species per years. If there are currently 10,000,000 species on Earth, how long will it take to destroy all of Earth’s biodiversity

Between 300-500 years

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66

What term do scientists use to describe how reproductively successful an organism is in its environment

fitness

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67

Everything an organism does and when it does it desribes an organism’s

niche

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68

Which of the following is an interaction in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed (+/-): parasitism, mutualism, competition, commensalism

parasitism

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69

Which of the following is an interaction in which both organisms are harmed (-/-): parasitism, predation, competition, commensalism

competition

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70

Which of the following types of organisms perform photosynthesis: primary producer, herbivore, carnivore, detrivore

primary producer

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71

Which of the following organisms is a decomposer: plant, tiger, mushroom, deer

mushroom

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72

What is true about energy transfer in communities

Most of the energy in a trophic level is lost as heat

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73

About how much energy in one trophic level transfers to the trophic level above it

10%

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74

The Industrial Revolution

began in the 1700s, societies shifted from rural life to urban life style

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75

Infant mortality

number of babies out of 1000 that die during their first year of life

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76

life expectancy

average number of years an individual is expected to live

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77

growth rate

how a population changes in size during a specific period of time

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78

demography

the study of human population statistics

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79

total fertility rate

average number of children a female had during her lifetime

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80

replacement fertility

the total fertility rate of a nation that would keep its population size stable

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81

demographic transition

model that explains the change from high births and deaths to low births and deaths

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82

Developments during the Industrial Revolution resulted in ___ infant mortality rate

decreases

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83

Developments during the Industrial Revolution resulted in ___ in life expectancy

increases

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84

During the Industrial Revolution, many people moved from rural areas to ___ areas

urban

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85

When human population reaches carrying capacity, its growth rate will be

zero

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86

Which of these population distributions best describes human populations: uniform, clumped, random, uniform and clumped

clumped

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87

Why are humans populations distributed this way

humans live close to where most resources are found

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88

What was the greatest cause of the exponential increase of human population

the industrial revolution

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89

What is the current human population

7.7 billion

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90

What will not happen when the Earth reaches carrying capacity: the human population will continue to grow, there will be a limited number of resources available for people, the human population growth rate will be 0, people will continue to have children

human population will continue to grow

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91

Which countries contribute to the most carbon emissions per capita into the atmosphere

the rich countries contribute more

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92

Which countries will be most affected by increased carbon emissions

all of the countries will be affected equally

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93

The industrial revolution improved

sanitation, medical technology and agriculture

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94

Which of the following is not an improvement brought by the industrial revolution: more people washed their hands with soap, the invention of antibiotics and vaccines, more collaboration between leading nations, large machines for fast production of food

more collaboration between leading nations

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95

Which countries will experience negative effects if human population gets too high

every country

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96

Which two countries have the highest human populations in the world

China and India

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97

Why was China’s One Child Policy Introduced

China’s population was too large

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98

Which of the following is a negative result of the one child policy: china’s population got even higher, the ratio of males to females was uneven, China’s population decreased to 0, Everyone revolted and had 10 babies

The ratio of males to females was uneven

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99

What does the graying of Americans refer to

the number of elderly retirees in the future will increase dramatically

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100

What is 0 population growth

there are as many people being born as there are dying

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