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classical conditioning

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434 Terms

1

classical conditioning

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

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behaviorism

the view that psycholgoy (1)should be an objective science that (2)studies behavior without references to mental processes

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unconditioned response

in CC, the unlearned, naturally occuring response to the US

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unconditioned stimulus

inCC, a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically - triggers a response

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conditioned response

inCC, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus

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conditioned stimulus

inCC, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an US, comes to trigger a CR

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acquisition

the intial stage in CC when one links a stimulus and an US so that the NS begins triggering the CR. In OC, the strengthening of a reinforced response

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8

higher-order conditioning

a procedure in which the CS in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neural stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) CS

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9

extinction

the diminishing of a CR; occurs in CC when an US does not follow a CS; occurs in OC when a response is no longer reinforced

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spontaneous recovery

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished CR

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respondent behavior

behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

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12

operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

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operant behavior

behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

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14

law of effect

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

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15

operant chamber

in OC research, a chamber (Skinner Box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking

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shaping

an OC procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

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discriminative stimulus

in OC, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement

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18

reinforcer

in OC, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

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positive reinforcement

increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. It is any stimulus, when presented after a response, strengthens the response

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negative reinforcement

increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as a shock. When removed after a response, strengthens the response

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primary reinforcer

an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

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22

conditioned reinforcer

a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer

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continuous reinforcement schedule

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

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partial (intermittent) reinforcement schedule

reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response, but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

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fixed-ratio schedule

in OC, reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses

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punishment

an event that decreases the behavior that it follows

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prosocial behavior

positive, constructive, helpful behavior - the opposite of antisocial behavior

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28

learning

a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience

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29

habituation

an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it

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associative learning

learning that certain events occur together

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31

generalization

the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimulus to the CS to elicit similar responses

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discrimination

in CC, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and stimuli that do not signal an US

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33

learned helplessness

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

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34

variable-ratio schedule

in OC, reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

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35

fixed-interval schedule

in OC, reinforces a response at specific time intervals

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variable-interval schedule

in OC, reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

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cognitive maps

a mental representation of the layout of one's environment

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38

latent learning

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

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39

insight

a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem

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40

intrinsic motivation

a desire to preform a behavior effectively for its own sake

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41

extrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment

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42

observational learning

learning by observing others - social learning

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43

modeling

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

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44

mirror neurons

frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy

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45

Stimulus

any event or situation that evokes a response

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46

cognitive learning

the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language

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47

neutral stimulus

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning

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48

reinforcement

in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

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reinforcement schedule

a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced

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50

biofeedback

a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension

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51

preparedness

a biological predisposition to learn associations, such as between taste and nausea, that have survival value

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52

instinctive drift

the tendency of learned behavior to gradually revert to biologically predisposed patterns

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53

problem-forced coping

attempting to alleviate stress directly - by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor

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54

emotion-forced coping

attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction

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55

personal control

our sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless

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56

external locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.

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internal locus of control

the perception that you control your own fate

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58

self-control

the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards

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59

Biological psychology

a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior

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60

neuron

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

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61

sensory neuron (afferent neuron)

neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory reseptors to the brain and spinal cord

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motor neurons (efferent neuron)

neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

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interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

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dendrite

the bushy, braching extentions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

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axon

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to the muscles or glands

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myelin sheath

a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impluses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

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action potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

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threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

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synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft

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neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to reseptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse

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reuptake

a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron

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endorphins

"morphine within" - natural . opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

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73

nervous system

the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

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74

central nervous system (CNS)

the brain and spinal cord

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peripheral nervous system

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

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nerves

bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

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somatic nervous system

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.

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autonomic nervous system

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.

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sympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

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80

parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

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81

reflex

a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response

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82

endocrine system

the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

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hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

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84

adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hornomes (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that helps arouse the body in times of stress

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pituitary gland

the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

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86

lesion

tissue destruction; a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue

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87

electroencephalogram (EEG)

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on th scalp.

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88

CT (computed tomograpgy) scan

a series of X-ray photos taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body - also called a CAT scan

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89

PET (positron emission tomography) scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

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MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

a technique that uses magnetic fields ans radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy

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91

fMRI (functional MRI)

a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans, fMRI shows brain functions

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92

brainstem

the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions

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medulla

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

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94

reticular formation

a nerve netowrk in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

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95

thalamus

the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum amd medulla - all senses, but smell are processed here

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cerebellum

the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output an balance

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limbic system

doughnut-shaped neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives

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98

amygdala

two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to raw emotions such as fear and anger

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hypothalamus

a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temp). helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward (think 4 F's!!)

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cerebral cortex

the intricate fabric of interconnected neural calles covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information processing center

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