Gov chapter 1-2

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Institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies

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154 Terms

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Institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies

government

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2

All of the things a government decides to do

public policies

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3

Power to make laws and to frame public policies

legislature power

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4

Power to execute, enforce, and administer laws

executive power

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5

Power to interpret laws, to determine their meaning, and to settle disputes that arise within the society

judicial power

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Form of government were those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people

dictatorship

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Form of government where supreme authority rests with the people

democracy

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]Greek philosopher who viewed the lives of individuals humans as linked in a social context. He wrote about various types of government and the obligations of the individual citizen

Aristotle

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A body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically, and with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority

state

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10

When a state has supreme and absolute power within its own territory and can deicide its own foreign and domestic policies

sovereign

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11

Felt that people and nations were in a constant battle for power and wealth. Thought that an absolute monarchy for England

Thomas Hobbes

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12

Wrote about his theories concerning the natural rights id man, the social contract, the separation of church's and state, religious freedom, and liberty

John Locke

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Famous poet and translator

Alexander pope

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16th president of US, known for issuing the emancipation proclamation, declared that "all person held as slaves… shall be then thenceforward, and forever free

Abraham Lincoln

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15

Form of government in which a single person holds unlimited power

Autocracy

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16

Form of government in which the power to rule is held by small, usually self-appointed elite

Oligarchy

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Centralized government in which all government powers belong to a single, central agency

Unitary government

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Form of government in which powers are divided between a central government and several local governments

Federal government

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Basic principle of federalism; the constitutional previsions by which governmental powers are divided on a geographic basis

Division of powers

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Joining of several groups for a common purpose

Confederation

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Form of government in which the executive and legislative branches of government are separated, independent, and coequal

Presidential government

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Form of government in which the executive branch is made up of the prime minister, or premier, and that official's cabinet; this branch is part of the legislature

Parliamentary

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23

British politician who served as an ambassador to the US. Popular writing the American Commonwealth

James Bruce

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British statesman who served as prime minister of the UK during WWII

Winston Churchill

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In a democracy, the majority of the people will be right more often than they will be wrong, and will be right more often than will any one person or small group

Majority rule

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Justice of the US Supreme Court, nicknamed the Great Dissenter

Oliver Wendell Holmes

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26th president. Nickname Teddy, he was a hunter, soldier, naturalist, and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize who also secured the route for and began construction on the Panama Canal

Theodore Roosevelt

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1st president, founding father, general and commander

George Washington

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29

Member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to it by birth by naturalization and is entitled o full civil rights

citizen

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An economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods; investments that are determined by private decisions rather than by state control and determined in a free market

Free enterprise system

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31

What does an area need to be a state

population, territory, sovereignty, and a government

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32

what are the theories about how states arose

force theory, evolutionary theory, divine right of kinds, and social contract

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pressure or force

small group or a person holds a power and claims control of an area, forcing people to follow their rules

force theory

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family was the root of developing a “privative family evolving out of a family … tribe, village, or even a state

evolutionary theory

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35

the states were created by God and created royal birth

** bound to obey rules as they obeyed God

divine right of kings

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constitutions are ____. people come together for government and giving up rights for government

social contract

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37

Form a more perfect union

Articles created a powerless gov to defeat enemies

Constitution written in 1787 - built for strength

Establish Justice

Most important duty of gov

Law must be fair, reasonable and impartial

Insure domestic tranquility

Having peace at home and having order is a prime rue for gov

Provide for common defense

Protecting your nation from other nations

The states have an army, navy, air force, coast guard, serving in the military, homeland security keeps watch for threats

Promote general welfare

Public schools are an example of gov's work

Functions of gov in other countries: operate steel mills, airlines, coal mines

Functions U.S gov carries out: things that benefit people

Secure the blessings of Liberty

Cannot be absolute

We all have responsibilities in the world to serve the public good

Patriotism is the love of one's country

Defining of a good citizen

What does a government do

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38

how can people demonstrate their understanding of the responsibilities, duties, and obligations of citizenship

They can support the constitution, being aware of what is happening in the world today, respect and obey all laws.

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39

What is the US in government

democratic republic

division of power of preserved powers

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40

what is direct vs what is indirect

direct:

  • people meet and make decisions for small towns

  • called pure democracy

  • viewed but the people as public policy

indirect

  • people vote for other people to make decisions

  • representative democracy

  • available in national, state, and local levels

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41

people can vote, choosing people for reps : direct democracy

republic

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42

people who rule cannot take ownership of people

dictatorship

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43

people hold absolute authority over people

authoritarian

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power to rule is held by small, self-appointed elite

oligarchy

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45

form of gov in which a single person holds power

autocracy

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legal system is only basing the rules off of religious law

theocracy (Iran)

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47

what are the 3 geographic distribution of power forms

centralized, federal, and confederation

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48

centralized gov in all gov powers belong to a central agency

  • creates local units of gov

  • local gov can only act on rules from central gov

centralized / unitary power

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49

who has parliament that holds all gov power and limited power of government

Great Britain

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50

powers are divided between central and several local gov which make division of powers

  • all with people through laws, officials, and agencies

federal gov

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51

where is the distribution of the US held in

national gov division of powers is held in the constitution

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52

joining of several group for a common purpose

confederation

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53
  • free trade

  • common currency

  • defense

  • sharing agreement

European union

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54

what do legislative and executive branches do

legislative makes laws in the house and senate

executive enforces the laws which is the president

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55

form of government in which the executive and legislative branches of government are separated, independent, and coequal

presidential

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56

executive branch is made up of the prime minister, or premier, that official's cabinet; part of legislature

parliament

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57

What are the pros for parliamentary

  • Smoother and faster decision making

  • More flexible

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58

what are the cons for parliamentary

  • No checks and balances

  • High possibility of turnover

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59

What are the pros for presidential

  • People have more say

  • Checks/balances have more protection for people and rights

  • Clear separation of powers

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60

what are the cons for presidential

deadlock legislation

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61

explain why it is possible that unitary gov might be either democratic or dictatorial in form

It is possible that a unitary government might be either democratic or dictatorial in form because it is described as a central government. A central government establishes local units of government that make the local governments have powers from the central government that they choose.

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62

what are the basics of democracy

worth of the individual

equality of all persons

majority rule, minority rights

necessity of compromise

individual freedom

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63

overriding importance, making people do things they do/don’t want to do

  • an individual and all individuals

worth of the individual

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more right/ majority vote. Majority must listen to minority’s argument, hearing objections, welcome suggestions

majority rule, minority right

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equality. Every person has equal opportunity

  • whether it protects or punishes

  • EVERYONE HAS OPPORTUNITY

equality of all persons

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66

finding/working together to have majority agreement

necessity of compromise

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67

all freedom as long as you respect the law and my rights and where yours begin

individual freedom

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68

what does it mean to have citizenship

  • Being a good citizen means being committed to obey the law

  • Abiding respect for each of the core beliefs

  • Personal responsibilities: taking care of yourself

  • Civic responsibilities: your role as a citizen of a larger community

    • Obey laws, paying taxes, being informed, voting, respecting the rights of others, etc.

  • Serve public good

    • Caring for community and environment, safety, education

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69

what consists of the free enterprise or market system

private ownership

individual initiative

profit

competition

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70
  • drives initiative

  • more money to economy when you buy goods

private ownership

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  • private decisions

  • to start, begin - take changes (entrepreneurship)

individual initiative

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  • drives market

  • money you make

profit

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  • people competing for your business

  • drives market

  • people want to be the best

competition

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74

what does it mean to be a good citizen

To be a good citizen, it means for you to follow the laws, respect others, taking care of yourself, take care of your civil responsibilities, and serve the public good

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75

Basic principle of American government, which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights that government cannot take away

limited government

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76

first permanent English settlement in North America, founded in Virginia and named after king James I - gave England an entry into the competition for the Americas

Jamestown

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77

System of government in which public policies are made by officials selected by the voters and held accountable in periodic elections

representative government

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78

King of England, forced to sign the Magna Carta

King john

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79

Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law

Magna Carta

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80

Doctrine that holds that the government must act fairly and in accord with established rules in all that it does

Due process

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81

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland in 1625-1649. ruled with strict authority and his quarrels with Parliament triggered a civil war

King Charles I

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82

Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land

  • limited kings power

  • no martial law in peace time

Petition of Rights

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83

Ruled jointly as king and queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1689-1702

William and Mary of Orange

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84

Events that lad to Parliament in 1688 inviting William and Mary of Orange to peacefully replace King James II on condition that they recognize the authority of Parliament and the rights of individuals

Glorious Revolution

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85

Document written by Parliament and agreed to by William and Mary of England I 1689, designed to prevent abuse of power by English monarchs

English Bill of Rights

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86

King of GB, Georgia was named in his honor after he signed a charter granting the colony to its 20 trustees in 1732

King George II

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87

City's basic law, its constitution; a written grant of authority from the king

Charter

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Adjective describing a legislative body composed of two chambers

Bicameral

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Organized by a proprietor

Proprietary

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member of parliament who founded Maryland as haven for the Catholics

George Calver, Lord Baltimore

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Advocated for religious freedom, cam to NA and established the colony of Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers and other religious minorities

William Penn

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92

Adjective describing a legislative body with one chamber

Unicameral

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93

Author, inventor, diplomat, and legislator. Proposed the Albany Plan of Union foresaw the benefits of colonial unity. Signed the declaration of independence and helped frame the constitution

Ben Franklin

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Plan proposed by Ben Franklin in 1754 for cooperation among the 13 colonies but was never adopted

Albany Plan of Union

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95

People with authority to represent others at a conference or convention

Delegates

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Tax on imports

Duties

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Founding father and became a leader in Boston politics through his writing. Delegate to the first and second continental congresses and helped draft the declaration of rights

Samuel Adams

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Connecticut lawyer and judge. Attended 1 and 2 congresses and helped draft the Articles of confederation, proposed Connecticut compromise

Roger Sherman

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New York lawyer, first chief of justice of US and governor of New York. First moderation in relations with GB Before declaration of independence

John Jay

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Defended British military officers in Boston Massacre out of a sense of fairness but became a leading advocate of American continental congresses

John Adams

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