The Rise of Nationalism In Europe

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What did Frédéric Sorrieu envision in his series of prints in 1848?

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1

What did Frédéric Sorrieu envision in his series of prints in 1848?

A world of 'democratic and social Republics.'

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2

What does the first print of Frédéric Sorrieu's series depict?

People from Europe and America paying homage to the statue of Liberty.

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3

What does Liberty symbolize in Frédéric Sorrieu's first print?

A female figure holding the torch of Enlightenment and the Charter of the Rights of Man.

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4

What do the shattered symbols of absolutist institutions in Frédéric Sorrieu's first print represent?

The downfall of absolutist institutions.

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5

Which nations are represented by flags and national costumes in Frédéric Sorrieu's first print?

Various nations including the United States, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary, and Russia.

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6

What does the procession in Frédéric Sorrieu's first print symbolize?

Fraternity among nations.

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7

What significant changes did nationalism bring about in Europe in the 19th century?

It replaced the multi-national dynastic empires with nation-states and featured centralized power and citizens with a common identity.

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8

1. What changes were made to the French language during the French Revolution?

French language from Paris became the common language of the nation.

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9

2. How did French armies spread the idea of nationalism in Europe?

French armies moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, and Italy in the 1790s, spreading the idea of nationalism.

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10

3. What did the Napoleonic Code establish?

The Napoleonic Code (Civil Code of 1804) abolished privileges based on birth, established legal equality, and secured property rights.

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11

4. How did administrative reforms under Napoleon simplify divisions and free peasants?

Administrative reforms simplified divisions, abolished the feudal system, and freed peasants in regions under French control.

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12

5. What were some of the challenges faced by French rule during the Revolution?

Increased taxation, censorship, and forced conscription led to hostility towards French rule.

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13

What was the primary unifying factor in the regions that comprised various languages?

Common allegiance to the emperor.

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14

What was the social and political status of the landed aristocracy?

The landed aristocracy was socially and politically dominant.

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15

What was the majority of the population consisted of?

The majority of the population consisted of peasants.

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16

What led to the emergence of commercial classes in Western and some Central European areas?

Industrialization.

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17

What influenced the middle classes after the abolition of aristocratic privileges?

Ideas of national unity.

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18

What was the ideology of liberalism in the early 19th century?

Liberalism emphasized individual freedom, equality before the law, and government by consent.

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19

What did liberalism politically support in the 19th century?

The end of autocracy, clerical privileges, and representative government.

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20

What did liberalism stress the importance of in the 19th century?

Private property.

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21

What did liberalism advocate for in terms of markets and state-imposed restrictions?

The freedom of markets and the removal of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

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22

What did the creation of a customs union (zollverein) in 1834 reduce in the German-speaking regions?

Tariff barriers, currencies, and improve.

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23

1. What is a customs union?

A customs union is a group of countries that have agreed to eliminate tariffs and other barriers to trade between them.

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24

2. What is economic nationalism?

Economic nationalism is a policy that seeks to protect domestic industries from foreign competition by imposing tariffs, quotas, or other trade barriers.

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25

3. What is conservatism?

Conservatism is a political philosophy that emphasizes the preservation of traditional institutions and values, and is generally skeptical of rapid social and political change.

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26

4. What is modernization?

Modernization is the process of social, economic, and political change that transforms traditional societies into modern ones.

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27

5. What is national identity?

National identity is a sense of belonging and loyalty to a particular nation or country, often based on shared cultural, historical, or political characteristics.

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28

6. What is liberalism?

Liberalism is a political philosophy that emphasizes individual freedom, equality, and the rule of law, and is generally supportive of social and political change.

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29

7. What is a bureaucracy?

A bureaucracy is a system of government or organization in which tasks are divided among specialized departments and officials, and decisions are made through a hierarchical chain of command.

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30

1. How did the creation of the zollverein contribute to economic exchange in mid-19th century Europe?

The creation of the zollverein reduced tariff barriers and currencies, which improved economic exchange in mid-19th century Europe.

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31

2. How did the development of railways contribute to national unification in Europe?

The development of railways facilitated economic mobility and contributed to national unification in Europe.

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32

3. How did modernization contribute to the strengthening of traditional institutions according to conservatives?

Modernization could strengthen traditional institutions by making state power more effective, having a modern army, efficient bureaucracy, dynamic economy, and a strong sense of national identity, according to conservatives.

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33

4. How did conservatism differ from liberalism in their approach to modernization and state power?

Conservatism emphasized the preservation of traditional institutions and values, while liberalism emphasized individual freedom, equality, and the rule of law, and was generally supportive of social and political change.

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34

What were the components of modernization in the 19th century?

Modernization included having a modern army, efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, and the abolition of feudalism and serfdom.

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35

What was the aim of the Congress of Vienna in 1815?

The aim was to undo most of the changes brought about by Napoleon's wars.

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36

What were the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna in 1815?

The Bourbon dynasty was restored to power, and France lost annexed territories. New states were established on France's borders to prevent its expansion. Prussia and Austria gained significant territories. The German confederation of 39 states established by Napoleon remained unchanged.

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37

What was the main goal of the Congress of Vienna in 1815?

The main goal was to restore monarchies and create a new conservative order in Europe.

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38

What was the nature of conservative regimes established in 1815?

Conservative regimes established in 1815 were autocratic and did not tolerate criticism or dissent.

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39

What were the censorship laws imposed by conservative regimes in 1815?

Censorship laws were imposed to control content in newspapers, books, plays, and songs that promoted ideas of liberty and freedom, reminiscent of the French Revolution.

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40

What was the memory that continued to inspire liberals in the 19th century?

The memory of the French Revolution continued to inspire liberals.

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41

What was one major issue raised by liberal-nationalists in the 19th century?

One major issue raised by liberal-nationalists was the need for greater political representation and autonomy for their respective nations.

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42

What were the notable regions of revolutionary activity during the 19th century in Europe?

The Italian and German states, provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Ireland, and Poland.

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43

What was the primary commitment of the revolutionaries during the 19th century in Europe?

The consolidation of power through liberalism and nationalism.

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44

How did Giuseppe Mazzini contribute to the revolutionary movements in Europe?

He inspired secret societies with his ideas of nationalism and unification.

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45

What was Mazzini's vision for Italy, and why did he believe in unification?

Mazzini envisioned a unified Italy, free from foreign rule, and believed that unification was necessary for Italy to become a great nation.

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46

How did secret societies inspired by Mazzini's ideas spread to different European countries?

Secret societies inspired by Mazzini's ideas spread through the educated middle-class elite, including professors, schoolteachers, clerks, and members of the commercial middle classes.

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47

How did conservatives view Giuseppe Mazzini and his ideas?

Conservatives viewed Mazzini and his ideas as a threat to the established order and sought to suppress them.

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48

What role did culture play in developing nationalism?

Culture played a significant role in developing nationalism, with art, poetry, stories, and music instrumental in expressing and shaping nationalist sentiments.

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49

What is Romanticism?

Romanticism is a cultural movement that contributed to the development of nationalist sentiment.

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50

What did Romantic artists and poets critique?

Romantic artists and poets critiqued the emphasis on reason and science and instead focused on emotions, intuition, and mystical feelings.

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51

What was the aim of Romantic artists and poets?

The aim of Romantic artists and poets was to create a sense of shared collective heritage and a common cultural past as the foundation of a nation.

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52

What was Johann Gottfried Herder's argument about German culture?

Johann Gottfried Herder argued that true German culture was rooted in the common people (das volk).

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53

What were some examples of folk culture that Herder believed were important?

Herder believed that folk songs, folk poetry, and folk dances were crucial to understanding and preserving true German culture.

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54

How did the Greek War of Independence mobilize nationalist feelings across Europe?

The Greek War of Independence mobilized nationalist feelings across Europe by inspiring other nationalist movements and demonstrating that it was possible to achieve independence from a larger empire.

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55

What support did Greek nationalists receive during their struggle for independence?

Greek nationalists received support from other European countries, including France, Britain, and Russia, who provided financial and military aid.

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56

What was the significance of the Treaty of Constantinople in 1832 for Greece?

The Treaty of Constantinople in 1832 recognized Greece as an independent nation and established its borders, ending the Greek War of Independence.

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57

What did Johann Gottfried Herder argue was the root of true German culture?

The common people (das volk).

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58

What were considered essential in popularizing the true spirit of the German nation (volksgeist)?

Folk songs, folk poetry, and folk dances.

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59

How did collecting and recording folk culture contribute to the project of nation-building?

It helped recover an ancient national spirit and reach illiterate audiences with the modern nationalist message.

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60

What was the significance of vernacular language and the collection of local folklore in nationalist movements?

They aimed to recover an ancient national spirit and reach illiterate audiences with the modern nationalist message.

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61

How did Poland maintain national feelings despite being partitioned by Russia, Prussia, and Austria in the late 18th century?

Through music and language.

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62

Who used operas and music to celebrate the national struggle in Poland?

Figures like Karol Kurpinski.

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63

What role did the Polish language play in the development of nationalist sentiments?

It played a significant role.

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64

What happened after Russian occupation of Poland?

The Russian language was imposed, leading to a rebellion in 1831.

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65

What did many clergy members in Poland do as a form of national resistance?

They began using the Polish language.

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66

What were the demands of the classes that united for constitutionalism and national unification?

Their demands included parliamentary principles, such as a constitution, freedom of the press, and freedom of association.

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67

What was the German National Assembly in Frankfurt?

It was a gathering of various political associations in the German regions, consisting of middle-class professionals, businessmen, and prosperous artisans, who convened in Frankfurt.

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68

What did the German National Assembly in Frankfurt draft?

They drafted a constitution for a unified German nation with a constitutional monarchy subject to parliamentary authority.

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69

Why did Friedrich Wilhelm IV, the King of Prussia, reject the offered crown under the terms of the constitution drafted by the German National Assembly in Frankfurt?

He rejected the offered crown under these terms and joined other monarchs in opposition to the elected assembly.

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70

What was the outcome of the parliament dominated by the middle classes losing support from workers and artisans?

It led to its eventual dissolution.

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71

What was the role of women in the liberal movement?

Women played active roles in the liberal movement, forming their political associations, newspapers, and participating in political meetings and demonstrations.

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72

What rights were denied to women during the election of the Assembly?

Women were denied suffrage rights during the election of the Assembly.

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73

Where were women allowed to observe proceedings during the election of the Assembly?

They were only allowed to observe proceedings from the visitors' gallery.

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74

What did nationalism in Europe shift towards after 1848?

Nationalist sentiments were mobilized by conservatives to promote state power and achieve political domination over Europe.

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75

What was the goal of middle-class Germans in 1848?

To unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament.

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76

Who assumed leadership in the movement for national unification in Germany?

Prussia assumed leadership in the movement for national unification.

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77

Who orchestrated the process of national unification in Germany with the assistance of the Prussian army and bureaucracy?

Otto von Bismarck, as chief minister of Prussia, orchestrated the process with the assistance of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.

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78

How many wars were fought over seven years to complete the unification process in Germany?

Three wars over seven years, involving Austria, Denmark, and France, ended in Prussian victory and the completion of the unification process.

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79

What significant change was introduced by autocratic monarchies in Central and Eastern Europe following the 1848 revolutions?

Some of the significant changes introduced by these monarchies following the 1848 revolutions were the introduction of constitutional reforms and the granting of civil liberties.

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80

How did autocratic monarchies in Central and Eastern Europe respond to the challenges posed by the 1848 revolutions?

Autocratic monarchies in Central and Eastern Europe responded to the challenges posed by the 1848 revolutions by suppressing revolutionary movements and introducing constitutional reforms to appease the masses.

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81

What challenges did women face in terms of suffrage during the 1848 revolutions?

Women faced significant challenges in terms of suffrage during the 1848 revolutions, as most revolutionary movements were dominated by men who were not interested in granting women the right to vote.

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82

Define Nationalism.

Nationalism is a political ideology that emphasizes the importance of a shared national identity, culture, and history, often leading to the desire for self-determination and independence.

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83

What were the main challenges Italy faced in terms of political fragmentation and foreign domination during the 19th century?

Italy faced political fragmentation with multiple states and foreign domination, including Austrian Habsburgs, the Pope, and the Bourbon kings of Spain.

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84

How did Giuseppe Mazzini contribute to the cause of Italian unification, and what was the significance of his secret society?

Giuseppe Mazzini's efforts to unify Italy under a republican form of government in the 1830s were significant. He founded a secret society called Young Italy, which aimed to promote Italian unification and independence from foreign powers.

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85

What were some of the challenges related to the awareness of liberal-nationalist ideology among the Italian population, particularly the peasant masses?

The Italian peasant masses were largely illiterate and had little exposure to liberal-nationalist ideology, making it difficult to mobilize them for the cause of Italian unification.

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86

What was the significance of Giuseppe Mazzini's secret society, Young Italy, in the cause of Italian unification?

Young Italy was a secret society founded by Giuseppe Mazzini that aimed to promote Italian unification and independence through revolutionary means, and it played a significant role in inspiring and mobilizing Italian nationalists.

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87

How did Chief Minister Cavour utilize diplomacy to achieve the goal of Italian unification?

Cavour used diplomacy to form alliances with other European powers, such as France and Britain, and to manipulate the balance of power in Europe to Italy's advantage, ultimately leading to the unification of Italy.

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88

What was the role of armed volunteers, led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, in the Italian unification process, and where did they achieve success?

Garibaldi's armed volunteers, known as the Red Shirts, played a crucial role in the unification of Italy by conquering the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in the south, and later by helping to capture Rome and Venetia.

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89

What was the mechanism behind the formation of the British nation-state, and how did it differ from sudden upheavals or revolutions?

The formation of the British nation-state was a gradual process that involved the growth of England's wealth, power, and influence over other nations in the British Isles, as well as the role of the English parliament in forging a nation-state with England at its core.

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90

How did King Victor Emmanuel II lead the movement for Italian unification, and why did the mantle of Italian unification fall on Sardinia-Piedmont?

Victor Emmanuel II led the movement for Italian unification by supporting the efforts of Chief Minister Cavour and by serving as a symbol of Italian national unity. The mantle of Italian unification fell on Sardinia-Piedmont because it was the most powerful and politically stable of the Italian states.

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91

What was the Act of Union in 1707, and how did it contribute to the formation of the British nation-state?

The Act of Union was a treaty that united England and Scotland into a single kingdom, known as Great Britain, with a shared parliament and monarchy. It contributed to the formation of the British nation-state by creating a political union between England and Scotland, and by establishing a framework for the future incorporation of other nations in the British Isles.

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92

What is the significance of using female allegories to represent nations?

Female allegories were used to symbolize the abstract idea of the nation, and they served as a unifying force for the people.

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93

How did artists use female allegories during the French Revolution?

Artists used female allegories to represent concepts like Liberty, Justice, and the Republic, and they were depicted through specific objects or symbols.

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94

Who was Marianne, and how was she used to promote national identity in France?

Marianne was the personification of the French nation, and she had attributes like the red cap, tricolor, and cockade. Statues of her were erected in public squares, and her image was featured on coins, stamps, and official documents.

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95

What were the efforts to promote a dominant English culture in the new Britain, and what symbols were used?

Efforts were made to promote a dominant English culture in the new Britain, and symbols like the Union Jack and the national anthem were used.

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96

How did Ireland's incorporation into the United Kingdom in 1801 affect its cultural identity?

Ireland's incorporation into the United Kingdom in 1801 had consequences for its cultural identity, as it led to the promotion of a dominant English culture and the suppression of Irish language and culture.

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97

What was the role of religion in Ireland's division, and how did it experience a similar fate to Scotland's Gaelic language?

Religion played a role in Ireland's division, and it experienced a similar fate to Scotland's Gaelic language in terms of suppression and marginalization.

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98

What is the Balkans?

The Balkans is a region comprising various regions with diverse geography and ethnicities.

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99

What is the Ottoman Empire?

The Ottoman Empire was a state that lasted from 1299 to 1922 and was centered in modern-day Turkey.

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100

What is romantic nationalism?

Romantic nationalism is a movement that emerged in the 19th century and emphasized the importance of national identity, language, and culture.

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