CHM F Exam 2

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Strong Acids

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Tags and Description

Types of Reactions, Electron Behavior, Waves

144 Terms

1

Strong Acids

HCl, HBr, HI, HClO4, HNO3, H2SO4

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2

Strong Bases

G1 and G2 hydroxides

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3

Non-electrolytes

H2O, CH3OH (methyl alcohol), C2H5OH (ethyl alcohol), C12H22O11 (sucrose), most carbon compounds, covalent molecules

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4

What makes acids/bases strong electrolytes?

they dissociate completely in solution

  • they are good conductors

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5

What makes acids/bases weak electrolytes?

they only partially dissociate in solution

  • weak conductors

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6

What makes things nonelectrolytes?

don’t dissociate at all in solution

  • are poor conductors

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7

molarity (M) =

moles (n)/ volume (v)

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8

ions carry _____

electrons

  • which is why strong electrolytes are good conductors

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9

Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases

acid: makes protons in solution

base: makes hydroxide ions in solution

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10

Bronsted-Lowry Definition of Acids and Bases

acid: makes protons in solution

base: accepts protons in solution

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11

Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases

acid: accepts e-

base: donates e-

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12

strong acids make higher [__] in solution

[H+]

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13

strong bases make higher [___] in solution

[OH-]

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14

monoprotic acids

have 1 H+

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15

diprotic acids

have 2 H+

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16

tri-protic acids

have 3 H+

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17

pH scale

0-14

<7: acidic

7: neutral (deionized water)

>7: basic

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18

Higher pH =

stronger base

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19

Lower pH =

stronger acid

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20

HI

hydroiodic acid

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21

HClO4

perchloric acid

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22

H2SO4

sulfuric acid

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23

HBr

hydrobromic acid

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24

HCl

hydrochloric acid

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25

HNO3

nitric acid

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26

H3PO4

phosphoric acid

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27

HF

hydroflouric acid

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28

HNO2

nitrous acid

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29

CH3CO2H

acetic acid

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30

H2SO3

sulfurous acid

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31

HClO

hypochlorous acid

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32

HClO2

chlorous acid

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33

HClO3

chloric acid

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34

neutralization reactions

acid + base = salt + H2O (l)

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35

A: initial acid conc

B: buffer region ([acid]=[con base]

C: equivalence point [acid]=[base]

above C: end point

D:excess base present

<p></p>
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36

graph with strong acid + strong base

point C (equivalence point) has pH of 7

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37

graph with strong acid + weak base

point C (equivalence point) has pH of <7

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38

graph with weak acid + strong base

point C (equivalence point) has pH of >7

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39

Phenophthalein

indicator that turns pink in basic solution (so OH- ions are present)

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40

Electronegativity

the tendency of an atom to attract electrons

  • increases up a group and across a period

<p>the tendency of an atom to attract electrons</p><ul><li><p>increases up a group and across a period</p></li></ul>
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41

Oxidation # equals ______ in any neutral substance that contains atoms of only one element (O2)

0

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42

Ox # equals ________ for ions that contain only one atom

the charge of the ion

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43

Ox # of hydrogen is ____ when combined with a more electronegative element

+1

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44

Ox # of hydrogen is ____ when combined with a less electronegative element

-1

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45

Ox # of G1 and G2 are ____ and _____ respectively

+1 and +2

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46

Ox # of oxygen is usually _____ unless it contains a single O-O bond, where it could be ____ (O2, O2-2, O3)

-2

-1

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47

Ox # of G7 is usually ___ when bound to a less electronegative element

-1

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48

the sum of oxidation numbers for atoms in a neutral molecule is equal to ____

0

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49

the sum of oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion is equal to ______

the charge of the ion

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50

the least electronegative atom in a molecule has a ______ oxidation number

positive

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51

the most positive oxidation number for an atom is often equal to _____

its group number

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52

the most negative oxidation number for a nonmetal is calculated by _______

8- group #

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53

Redox rxns

red: when the ox # of an atom becomes more negative/decr

ox: when the ox # of an atom becomes more positive/incr

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54

reducing agents

does oxidation (gives e- to something else)

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55

oxidizing agents

does reduction (receives the e-)

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56

m1v1=

m2v2

  • molarity and volume of dilutions

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57

ka of strong acids

»»1

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58

ka of weak acids

««1

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59

kb of strong bases

»»1

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60

kb of weak bases

««1

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61

electrons behave as both _____ and _____

particles and waves

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62

wavelength (λ)

the distance between two successive wave peaks

<p>the distance between two successive wave peaks</p>
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63

frequency (v)

the number of wave peaks that pass a given point per unit of time

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64

trough

the bottom part of a wave

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65

peak/crest

the top of a wave

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66

amplitude

the height of a wave from maximum to the center

<p>the height of a wave from maximum to the center</p>
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67

as λ incr,

v decr

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68

as amplitude incr,

energy/intensity incr

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69

gamma rays

can change how your DNA is wired, potentially causing cancer

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70

is you can see red, it means that

green is absorbed and red is being reflected

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71

humans can see between the wavelengths of

400-800 nm

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72

λ x v =

c

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73

c

3.00 e8 m/s

  • speed of light

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74

E=

h x v

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75

h

6.626 e-34 J*s

  • Planck’s constant

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76

work function

energy required to reject an e- from an atom of an element

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77

diff freq =

diff energy

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78

Bohr’s model of the atom only explains

hydrogen

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79

closer to the nucleus =

more energy

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80

electrons in a hydrogen atom travel

around the nucleus in a circular orbit

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81

the energy of an electron in a given orbit is proportional to

its distance from the nucleus

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82

it requires energy to move ____ and energy level

up

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83

Can an e- be between energy levels?

NO

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84

only orbits with certain

energies are allowed

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85

light is _____ when an electron moves to a higher energy level

absorbed

  • this energy is equal to the diff between the energies of the two orbits

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86

light is _____ when an electron moves to a lower energy level

emitted

  • this energy is equal to the diff between the energies of the two orbits

  • the lost energy is negligible

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87

electrons are at

different energy levels

  • n1 is the lowest level

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88

∆E=

E2-E1

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89

positive energy values

absorbing energy/ moving towards the nucleus

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90

negative energy values

releasing energy/ moving away from the nucleus

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91

Rydberg constant equation

1/λ = (1/m² - 1/n² ) x (1.097 e^-2 nm^-1)

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92

n

higher orbit

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93

m

lower orbit

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94

λ =

c/v

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95

E=

h * v

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96

higher amplitude =

higher intensity

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97

h=

6.626 e^-34 J * s

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98

1 Hz=

1 s^-1

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99

speed of light [c]

3 e^8 m/s

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100

closer to nucleus=

higher energy

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