ap psych - unit 5

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effortful processing

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Psychology

141 Terms

1

effortful processing

active processing of information that needs sustained conscious effort and requires attention

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2

automatic processing

the unconscious processing of well-learned material (basically muscle memory)

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deep processing

processing information with consideration to its meaning which leads to better recall

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shallow processing

uses surface characteristics to process information

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5

structural shallow processing

encoding information with the use of visual and physical characteristics

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6

phonemic shallow processing

encoding information using auditory characteristics

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7

selective attention

the ability to focus on one particular stimuli while blocking out others

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8

divided attention

  • the ability to focus on multiple stimuli at the same time

  • requires more automatic processing than selective attention

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9

metacognition

the ability to be aware and control of your own thoughts and cognitive processes

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10

short-term memory

  • the type of memory that can only be stored for a brief period of time

  • the capacity for short-term memory is seven plus/minus two

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11

long-term memory

an unlimited capacity for memory that can store it for sustained periods of time

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12

explicit memory

stored memory of facts that are made in the hippocampus

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13

semantic explicit memories

memory of facts, ideas, and concepts

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14

episodic explicit memories

memories of personal experiences

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15

implicit memories

type of long-term memory that is remembered unconsciously

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16

sensory implicit memories

the ability to retain sensory information even after the stimulus has ended

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17

echoic sensory memories

memory of sound that lasts for about three to four seconds

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18

iconic sensory memories

memory of visual stimuli that lasts for about 1/4th to 1/2th of a second

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19

prospective sensory memories

remembering to perform an action at a certain time

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20

flashbulb memories

a clear memory of an emotionally significant event

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21

elizabeth loftus

associated with research on false memories

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22

encoding

process of sensing, processing, and storing information

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23

visual encoding

process of remembering visual images + forgotten easily

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24

acoustic encoding

processing and encoding of sound + somewhat forgotten easily

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25

semantic encoding

when a word, pictures, or phrase is encoded based on the basis of its meaning rather than its sound/vision

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26

maintenance rehearsal

process of repeatedly thinking about or verbalizing a certain piece of information

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27

elaborative rehearsal

process of using active thinking about the meaning of the term

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28

self-reference effect

when someone applies a situation to themselves, they are more likely to remember what the situation is

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29

storage

the process of maintaining or keeping information readily available

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30

Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

model that shows information going from shallow to deep memory

<p>model that shows information going from shallow to deep memory</p>
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31

sensory memories

events coming from the environment that can become a part of short-term memory

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32

chunking

process of grouping information to be stored or processed as single concepts

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33

hierarchies

a method used to organize information by starting with broad information and then into specific classes

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34

schemas

a concept of framework that helps an individual to make sense of information

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35

concept

mental grouping of events, people, and similar things p

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36

prototype

a mental image or the best representative of a certain category

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37

anterograde amnesia

the inability to form new memories but remembers past memories

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38

long-term potentiation

strengthening of neural connections which creates a longer-lasting memory

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39

retrieval

process of recalling memories such as feelings, images, and events

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40

recall

process of bringing information from stored memories into conscious awareness

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41

recognition

when someone notices something that they have previously learned

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42

relearning

how much faster someone can learn material has been previously learned and then forgotten

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43

serial-position effect

people tend to remember information in a list that is mentioned first or last

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44

primacy effect

remembering the first thing in a list that was said

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45

recency effect

remembering the last thing in a list that was said

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46

mnemonic devices

tools used to help remember an idea or phrase and can enhance memory and retention

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47

method of loci

a mnemonic device in which a person memorizes information by placing each item in different locations

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48

tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

the temporary inability to remember information s

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49

semantic network theory

states that a person’s brain likes to form new memories by connecting its meaning to other memories and their meanings

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50

priming

activation of a memory by association

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51

context-dependent memory

when someone remembers information in the same place that they encoded it

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52

state-dependent memory

what someone learns in one state will be easier to recall when in that same state

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53

mood-congruent memory

when humans store memories about an event, they also store the emotion felt in that memory

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54

constructive memory

memories can be false details of real events or a completely made up event

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55

recovered memory phenomenon

individuals can suddenly remember repressed memories (usually via therapy)

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56

spacing effect

people learn material more easily and effectively when it is studied many times over a long period of time

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57

testing effect

when someone has enhanced memory after retrieving information rather than rereading it

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58

herman ebbinghaus

a psychologist that studied human memory and made the forgetting curve

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59

forgetting curve

people forget 75% of the information that they learn within one day (without relearning/rehearsing)

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60

retroactive interference

when it is hard to recall old information because of new information

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61

proactive interference

when it is hard to recall new information because of old information

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62

retrograde amnesia

when someone is unable to recall recent memories/memories of their general past

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63

source amnesia/misattribution error

an individual’s inability to remember how they learned previously acquired information

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64

deja vu

a person’s false sense that they have experienced a situation before

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65

misinformation effect

a person’s recollection of an event is negatively impacted and becomes less accurate because of information after the event

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motivated forgetting

can be conscious or unconscious in order to shy away from unacceptable behaviors or painful memories

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67

hippocampus

responsible for the formation of memory and processes explicit memories for storage

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68

what happens when there is damage to the left side of the hippocampus?

an individual will have trouble remembering verbal information

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69

what happens when there is damage to the right side of the hippocampus?

an individual will have trouble remembering visual information

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70

frontal lobes

processes incoming auditory and visual information + makes sense of new information

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71

thalamus

helps encoding sensory memory into short-term memory

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72

cerebellum

stores implicit memories that are formed by classical conditioning and conditioned reflex

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73

basal ganglia

helps form procedural memories

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74

amygdala

the emotions produced by the amygdala can fuel the brain which can cause memories to last longer

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75

algorithm

step by step method that guarantees to solve a particular problem

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76

heuristic

methods used to quickly solve a problem and are less effective than algorithms

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77

mental set

individuals try to solve a problem the same way all the time because it has worked in the pastfi

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78

fixation

the inability to look at a problem with a different perspective

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79

intuition

sensing something without a direct reason and basically an automatic thought

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80

insight (discovered by Wolfgang Kohler)

when an individual suddenly understands something

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81

inductive reasoning

reasoning from something specific to something general

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82

deductive reasoning

reasoning from something general to something specific

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convergent thinking

logical way of thinking; used in IQ and intelligence tests

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84

divergent thinking

creative way of thinking

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85

functional fixedness

the tendency to only think of the familiar functions of an object

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86

availability heuristic

the ability to easily recall immediate examples about something

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87

representativeness heuristic

when someone judges someone based on how much they match their prototype

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88

confirmation bias

tendency of individuals to support or search for information that aligns with their opinions and ignore information that doesn't

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89

belief perseverance

the tendency to hold onto a belief even if it has lost its credibility

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90

belief bias

the tendency for our preexisting beliefs to distort logical thinking

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91

self-serving bias

a person attributes positive outcomes to their own doing and negative outcomes to external factor

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92

attentional bias

when people’s perceptions are influenced by recurring thoughts

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93

actor-observer bias

a person might attribute their own actions to external factors and the actions of others to internal factor

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94

anchoring bias

an individual relies heavily on the first piece of information given when making a decision

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95

hindsight bias

when you think you knew something all along after the outcome has occurred

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96

framing

a cognitive bias in which people decide on an option based on whether or not a positive or negative connotation is given

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97

g factor (charles spearman)

underlines specific mental abilities that can be measured on an intelligence test

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98

factor analysis

a statistical procedure identifying clusters of items that could measure your intelligence

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99

charles spearman

found that if you have a high intelligence in one of the subjects, you have an overall high general intelligence

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100

L.L. Thurstone

thought that intelligence could be broken up into different clusters: world fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numeric ability, inductive reasoning, and memory

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