Final Exam

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Mycology

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1

Mycology

Study of fungi

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2

Nutritional type of Fungi

Chemoheterotrophic

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3

Chemoheterotrophic

Microbes that use organic chemical substances as sources of energy and organic compounds as the main source of carbon.

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4

What source would be unavailable without fungi?

Carbon and Nitrogen

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5

Fungi can reproduce ______ or ______

Sexually, Asexually

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6

Asexual forms of fungi are _____

filamentous or anamorph

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7

Sexual forms of fungi are _______

mushrooms or teleomorph

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8

Conidia

Any type of spore produced outside the cell

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9

Mitospores

Asexually produced conidia produced by mitosis

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10

Meiospores

Sexually produced conidia by meiosis

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11

Most metabolism of fungi is going to be _____ _____ and/or _______

Aerobic respiration, fermentation

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12

Cell walls of fungi contain ______

Chitin, made only NAG

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13

T/F: Fungi prefer slightly acidic conditions

True

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14

T/F: Bacteria enjoy neutrality

True

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15

Fungi are more tolerant of _________ _______ pressure

sub-optimal osmotic

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16

Fungi _____ drying while bacteria are ______ to dry conditions

resist, sensitive

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17

Vegetative growth

Asexual cells

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18

Hypha

filament of fungal cells

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19

Vegetative hyphae

lateral growth

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20

Hyphae can be:

Septate or Coenocytic

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21

Mycelium

the vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching threadlike hyphae

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22

Yeast are _____

Unicellular

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23

Saccharomyces reproduces by ______

Budding (asymmetrical)

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24

Schizosaccaromyces reproduces by _________

Fission (symetrical)

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25

Dimorphic Growth

Fungi that can alternate between yeast and filamentous growth

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26

Plasmogamy

Haploid donor cell nucleus penetrates the cytoplasm of a haploid recipient cell

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27

Karyogamy

Donor (+) and recipient (-) nuclei fuse to form a single, diploid nucleus

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28

Meiosis

Diploid nucleus divides to form haploid nuclei in different cells (sexual spores)

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29

Holomorph

Anamorph + Teleomorph

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30

Chytrid

Common name of Chytridiomycota

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31

T/F: Chytrids are the oldest true anaerobic group of fungi

True

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32

Zygomycota

Division of fungi having sexually produced zygospores

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33

Sporangiospores are asexually produced spores in ________

Zygomycota

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34

Ascomycota are commonly called ____ or ____

Cup fungi, or sac fungi

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35

Ascospores form in _____ in the ascocarp

ascus

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36

Some people blame the Salem witch trials on this

Claviceps Purpurea growing on rye

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37

Basidiomycota

Club fungi, toadstools, puffballs

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38

Basidiomycota hyphae have something called a _______ connection

Clamp

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39

Teleomorphs are in what group

Basidiomycota

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40

Anamorphs are found in _________.

Hyphomycetes

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41

Basidium produces ______.

basidiospores (meiospores)

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42

What are the two highly prized mushroom species?

Cantharellus cibarius (Chanterelle) and Tuber sp. (Truffle)

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43

How are puffballs dispersed?

Raindrop

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44

deadly mushrooms include:

Amanita muscaria, Amanita caesarea (edible), Amanita phalloides

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45

Some mushrooms have ____, not gills

Pores

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46

All hyphomycota

Anamorphic fungi

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47

Hyphae

Septate

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48

Hyphae that do not fruit

Sterile

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49

Canidia

Any external spores

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50

Penicillium is similar to _____

Aspergillus

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51

Phialides produce these

philospores

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52

philospores

Conidia

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53

Alternaria and ulocladium produce what

porospores

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54

Oomycota

fungi-like

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55

Once considered fungi, but DNA is very different

Oomycota

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56

Saprolegnia belongs to what phylum

OomycotaS

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57

Saprolegnia attack what

Fish and their eggs

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58

What has phytophthra caused?

-Potato Famine -Sudden Oak Death -California and Oregon -Bleeding cankers on tree trunks

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59

P. Cinnamoni attacks what?

Eucalyptus

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60

Historical methods of non-sterile food preservation

Desiccation - Rice and Beans High Osmotic Pressure - Salt-cured foods

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61

Only sterile historical method of food preservation.

Fermentation - Pickling

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62

American government agencies to protect against food borne diseases

-US Food and Drug Administration -United States Department of Agriculture

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63

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point

A pro-active attempt to prevent contamination

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64

What are the three categories of food?

-Perishable -Semi perishable -Stable/Nonperishable

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65

Example of perishable food

Meat

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66

Example of semi perishable food

Potatoes and nuts

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67

Example of non perishable food

Sugar and Flour

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68

Blanching

Hot Water Treatment

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69

What is a Retort?

Essentially a huge autoclave that treats food in incredibly high temperatures

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70

Does canning sterilize?

No

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71

Retorts apply enough heat for _______ treatment.

12D

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72

What is a 12D treatment?

Will shave 12 Decimals from infected food

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73

What is the target organism of 12D treatment?

Clostridium Botulinum

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74

What are the 3 types of canned food spoilage?

-Flat sour spoilage -Thermophilic, anaerobic spoilage -Putrefactive anaerobic spoilage

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75

Flat sour spoilage

Thermophiles grow, but can does not swell

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76

Thermophilic, anaerobic spoilage

Food was not transported under cool conditions

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77

Putrefactive anaerobic spoilage

Can swells

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78

Aseptic packaging

More recently used. Packaging materials are heat or UV-sterilized

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79

Radiation treatment

Highly lethal to microbes, penetrates really well.

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80

What forms of ionizing radiation can be used in radiation treatment

-X-rays -Gamma rays -Electron Beams

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81

T/F: The smaller the item is, the less radiation is needed

True

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82

High Pressure Treatment

Used for pre-cooked, pre-packaged foods. Submerges foods in water, water is pressured to 87,000 psi.

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83

Why is high-pressure treatment not regulated by government.

There is no additive, only physical force.

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84

Grains are malted

Grains are sprayed and made to feel as though they've been planted, causing them to sprout. Converts starches from sprouts to simple sugars. Dried after sprouts

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85

Why are Hops added to beer?

Hops gave compounds that are anti-bacterial.

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86

IPAs

Have lots and lots of hops. Jacked up because beer was spoiling on the way to the consumer.

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87

Food poisoning

Foodborne disease = disease resulting from ingestion of foods containing microbial toxins

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88

Food infection

Foodborne disease = microbial infection resulting from ingestion of pathogen-contaminated food, followed by the growth of the pathogen in the host

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89

How do you test for foodborne illnesses

Antigen antibody tests or PCRs

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90

What are two common forms of food poison

Staphylococcal and clostridia

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91

Staphylococcal food poisoning

Likely 185,000 cases each year. Staph Aureus can produce heat stabile enterotoxins

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92

Gasteroenteritis occurs within a few hours (1-6hrs) after consumption causes:

-Diarhhea -Vomiting -Abdominal cramp

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93

Clostridial food poisoning are due to

Clostridium botulinum or C. perfringens

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94

What is unique about clostridium perfringens

Nauseam diarrhea, cramps, but no fever

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95

Clostridium botulinum

-Botulinum toxin is an exotoxin (neurotoxin that causes paralysis) -Death is caused by respiratory paralysis -Destroyed by heat -Canning is the common offender

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96

Salmonellosis

Food infection - close relative to E. coli. Invade phagocytes and grow as intracellular pathogen

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97

E. Coli

Food infection - A few strains are pathogenic, seen by the proteins of the flagellum. Children are especially sensitive

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98

Campylobacter

Food infection - Most common reported foodborne illness

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99

Most common campylobacter found

C. Jejuni and C. coli common in poultry, pork, shellfish

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100

Listeria

Food infection - Monocytogenes causes listeriosis. Similar to Salmonella in that it infects phagocytes. Commonly found in ready to eat meats, fresh soft cheeses.

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