BIO 05 UNIT 3

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Biology

108 Terms

1

somatic

what type of motor neurons do skeletal muscles respond to?

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2

smooth muscle

muscle that contracts variably

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3

electrical or chemical signals

how are smooth muscle contractions initiated?

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4

Z disc

sarcomere start/stop at ____

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5

nebulin

inelastic protein that aligns actin filaments

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6

sphincter

example of tonic smooth muscle

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7

myosin

major motor protein of skeletal msucle

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8

skeletal

multinucleate muscle type

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9

arteries

example of phasic smooth muscle

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10

M line

thick filaments (myosin) originate at the ____

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11

smooth

type of muscle in which the sarcoplasmic reticulum is less organized

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12

titin

elastic, allows for returning stretched muscles to normal

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13

intercalated discs

gap junctions in cardiac muscle are found in what feature?

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14

sliding filament theory of contraction

theory states actin and myosin are fixed in length and slide past each other to shorten

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15

pharmamechanical coupling

smooth muscle contraction caused by chemical signaling is called

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16

excitation contraction coupling

the connection between a muscle fiber AP and calcium release is referred to as

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17

myosin light chain phosphorylase

what enzyme decreases myosin activity?

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18

0

the pulse pressure at the capillaries is

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19

electromechanical coupling

smooth muscle contraction caused by electrical signaling is called

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20

single unit smooth muscle

type of smooth muscle that contracts as a single unit

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21

multi-unit smooth muscle

type of smooth muscle in which each cell is stimulated independently

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22

increased calmodulin

what activates myosin light chain kinase?

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23

location, contraction pattern, communication

smooth muscle is classified 3 ways:

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24

myofibrils

part of skeletal muscle that generates the force

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25

mean corpuscular volume

a CBC test will include measurement of the average volume/size of RBC

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26

no sarcomeres

why isnt smooth muscle striated?

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27

smooth

which muscle is the slowest to contract?

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28

increased

what does increased myosin activity mean for contraction

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29

myosin light chain kinase

what enzyme increases myosin activity?

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30

tonic

type of smooth muscle that at its 'rest', is contracted

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31

stretch activated calcium channels

type of calcium channels in smooth muscles that open when pressure or other force distorts cell membrane

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32

cardiac

type of muscle cells linked by gap junctions

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33

M line

3

<p>3</p>
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34

tropomyosin

protein that wraps around actin, blocks off binding sites so it cannot contract at full force or engage in power stroke

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35

skeletal

which muscle type is the quickest to contract?

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36

hypotension

lower than normal MAP

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37

A band

7

<p>7</p>
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38

diffusion

in capillary exchange, individual particles (eg. calcium ion) move by

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39

titin

5

<p>5</p>
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40

myosin head

1

<p>1</p>
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41

tropomyosin

7

<p>7</p>
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42

troponin

5

<p>5</p>
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43

G actin molecule

6

<p>6</p>
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44

actin

5678

<p>5678</p>
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45

myofibrils

highly organized bundles of contractile and elastic proteins that carry out the work of contraction

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46

troponin

protein that controls the position of tropomyosin

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47

ca

what chemical/molecule binds with troponin to pull away tropomyosin

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48

slower

larger diameter of blood vessels means velocity of blood vessels will be

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49

excretion of fluid from urine

how do kidneys cope with increased blood volume

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50

decrease, decrease

if flow in aorta << flow out of aorta .... what happens to blood volume? what happens to MAP?

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51

mechanoreceptors

baroreceptors are what type of receptors

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52

H zone

6

<p>6</p>
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53

cardiovascular system, kindeys

what two organs/systems are responsible for compensation because of increased blood volume?

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54

I band

8

<p>8</p>
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55

the body spends more time in diastole

why is MAP not the average of systolic and diastolic BP?

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56

vesicular transport

in capillary exchange, large solutes and proteins are moved by

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57

increase

vasoconstriction will do what to BP

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58

korotkoff sounds

we take blood pressure via listening to the pulsing of blood through the arteries at different pressure modulated by the blood pressure cuff. The sounds that are listened for are called

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59

radius of BVs, length, and viscosity of blood

3 factors that affect resistance in BVs

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60

local control, sympathetic reflexes, hormones

3 ways that arteriolar resistance changes

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61

amount of volume over a unit of time

flow

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62

arteries

the pressure reservoir of the cardiovascular system

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63

increases, increase

if flow in aorta >> flow out of aorta .... what happens to blood volume? what happens to MAP?

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64

mean corpuscular hemoglobin

a CBC test includes the measurement of the amount of hemoglobin per RBC

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65

valves, skeletal muscle pump, respiratory pump

3 methods of venous return

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66

myosin

3 is made of

<p>3 is made of</p>
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67

vasodilation, decr cardiac output

how does the cardiovascular system cope with increased blood volume

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68

bilirubin

when RBCs are broken down, remnants of heme groups are converted

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69

histamine

name a paracrine signal that are vasodilators

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70

reactive hyperemia

the bodys response when blood flow is not normal for some reason/occlusion

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71

vasoconstriction

what happens when norepinephrine binds to alpha receptors

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72

vasodilation

what happens when epinephrine binds to beta2 receptors

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73

heart, liver, skeletal muscle arterioles

during a sympathetic response, vasodilation occurs in which organs? (these organs have beta2 receptors)

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74

adrenal medulla

epinephrine is released by ____ in when the sympathetic nervous system is activated

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75

erythropoietin

molecule that stimulates/regulates the production of red blood cells

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76

increase

increased cardiac output will do what to BP

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77

decrease

vasoconstriction will do what to blood flow

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78

thrombopoietin

molecule that regulates the production of platelets

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79

basophil

least common type of leukocyte

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80

bone marrow

where are hematopoietic pluripotent stem cells found?

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81

fibrinogen

inactivated form of a protein in blood plasma that is important for clotting

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82

RBCs

single largest solid component of blood

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83

myogenic autoregulation

term for how vascular smooth muscle regulates itself, preventing fast, large changes in blood flow and overstretching

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84

hematopoiesis

term for the production of blood cells

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85

leukopoiesis

process of white blood cell formation

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86

plasma

majority of blood volume is

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87

lipids, amino acids, proteins, glucose

name the important organic molecules in plasma (4)

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88

mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

a CBC test includes a measurement of the amount of hemoglobin per volume of one red blood cell

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89

rupture, phagocytized in spleen

how to RBCs die and get broken down?

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90

bile

bilirubin is converted in the liver to be excreted as ____

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91

megakaryocytes

_____ break off into fragments, called platelets

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92

hemostasis

process of initially stopping blood loss

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93

ferritin

the liver stores excess iron as...

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94

AV valves open

what valve(s) must be open when blood volume in ventricles increases

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95

p wave

depolarization of atria on the ECG is seen as the

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96

qrs complex

depolarization of ventricles on the ECG is seen as the

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97

T wave

ventricular repolarization is seen on the ECG as

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98

diastasis

part of wiggers diagram where there is brief no change in pressure

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99

mitral valve closes

C

<p>C</p>
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100

aortic valve opens

A

<p>A</p>
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