AP PYSCH- Disorders full unit

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Hallucinations

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136 Terms

1

Hallucinations

False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus

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Delusions

False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

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Affect

Appearance of observable emotions

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DSM 5

The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders

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Neurosis

An outdated term once used to refer, as a group, to anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, dissociative disorders, and some forms of depression. Freud used this to describe patients

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Psychosis

ABNORMAL CONDITION OF THE MIND

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Mood Disorders

Disorders characterized by extreme and unwarranted disturbances in emotion or mood. Major category.

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Major Depression

A very serious mood disorder lasting more than 2 weeks in which people lose interest in life and can no longer find enjoyment in anything

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SAD

Seasonal Affective Disorder

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Bipolar Disorder

A disorder in which the person alternates between depression and mania.

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Anxiety Disorder

A class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety.

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Characterized by excessive anxiety or worry about numerous things, lasting for 6 months or longer.

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Panic Disorder

An anxiety disorder marked by recurrent and unpredictable panic attacks.

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Agoraphobia

An abnormal fear of open or public places because they might not be able to flee

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Phobias

A group of anxiety disorders involving a fear of a specific object or situation

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

A disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsession) and/ or actions (compulsions).

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Somatoform Disorder

Conditions involving physical complaints or disabilities that occur without any evidence of physical pathology to account for them. major category

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Conversion Disorder

A rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found.

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Dissociative Fugue

A form of amnesia in which the individual may leave home and sometimes assumes a new identity. Complete identity loss

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Dissociative Amnesia

A dissociative disorder involving the partial or total inability to recall important personal events

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Dissociative Disorders

disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

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Anorexia Nervosa

An eating disorder marked by constant dieting, rapid weight loss, and the illusion of being fat in spite of weight loss.

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Bulimia Nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by repeated and uncontrolled (and often secretive) episodes of binge eating.

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Schizophrenia

A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions. Very difficult to treat.

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Diathesis-stress hypothesis

A hypothesis about the cause of certain disorders, such as schizophrenia, that suggests that genetic factors predispose an individual to a certain disorder, but that environmental stress factors must exist in order for the potential risk to manifest itself.

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Narcissistic Personality Disorder

A personality disturbance characterized by an exaggerated sense of self-importance

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Borderline Personality Disorder

A personality disorder characterized by repeated instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and mood and by impulsive behavior

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Antisocial Personality Disorder

a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist. A psychopath

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Autism Sprectrum

A developmental disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and an understanding of others emotions

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Dyslexia

A reading disability, thought by some experts to involve a brain disorder.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Behavior that reflects an inability to pay attention.

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Insanity

A legal term indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness.

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Insight therapies

Psychotherapies, including psychodynamic, humanistic, and group approaches, with the goal of expanding awareness

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Transference

In psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).

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Neo-Freudian Psychodynamic therapies

Helping a client uncover unconscious & childhood relationships to treat disorders.

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Client-centered therapy

A humanistic therapy based on Carl Roger's beliefs that includes unconditional positive regard

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Systematic Desensitization

A type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli (hierarchy)

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Exposure Therapy

Behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders in which the person is repeatedly exposed to the disturbing object or situation under controlled conditions.

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Aversion Therapy

Behavioral treatment where disliked stimuli is paired with a negative behavior in hopes that behavior will change in future to avoid the disliked stimuli.

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Token economy

An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn rewards for exhibiting a desired behavior

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Rational-Emotive Behavior therapy

Developed by Albert Ellis, a form of psychotherapy based on identifying and correcting irrational beliefs

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Antipsychotic drugs

Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder (usually controls dopamine)

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Tardive Dyskinsea

A potentially disabling motor disorder that may occur following regular use of antipsychotic drugs.

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Antidepressant Drugs

CLASSIFIED INTO 3 GROUPS: **Tricyclics, Monamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOs), Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), AND used to treat Mood disorders

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Lithium Carbonate

A chemical used to counteract mood swings of bipolar disorder

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Antianxiety drugs

A category of drugs that includes the barbiturates and benzodiazepines, drugs that diminish feelings of anxiety.

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Stimulants

Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.

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Psychosurgery

Brain surgery used to alleviate symptoms of serious mental disorders.

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Electroconvulsive Therapy

a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient

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Transcranial Magnetic Therapy

A treatment procedure for disorders in which an electromagnetic coil, which is placed on or above a person's head sends a current into the individual's brain. Showing promise for depression, Parkinson's, anxiety, etc.

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Philippe Pinel

French physician who has been considered a primary figure in the movement for humanitarian treatment of people with mental illness in asylums

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Frederick Perls

Developed the gestalt theory further and brought it to the U.S.

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Carl Rogers

Humanist. Client Centered Therapy. Unconditional Positive Regard

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Aaron Beck

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

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Albert Ellis

pioneer in Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET), focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotions

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David Rosenhan

Designed study to test effects of labeling and accurateness of diagnosis - experimented with fake (mentally sound) patients in a mental hospital

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4 D’s

  1. Deviant

  2. Dysfunctional

  3. Dangerous

  4. Distressful

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Becks cognitive therapy ( catastrophic thinking)

Originally devised as a treatment for depression

-Blame their set-backs on personal inadequacies without considering circumstantial explanations

-Focus selectively on negative events while ignoring positive ones

- Making unduly pessimistic predictions based on the future

- Draw negative conclusions about their worth based on imagined events

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Treatments for Beck’s Cognitive Therapy

making client aware of negative thoughts, possibly writing them down. Then with the help of a therapist they evaluate and test the thoughts Sometimes the treatment will include modeling, behavioral rehearsal and possible homework to challenge beliefs

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SSRI

selective serotonin reputake inhibitor

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What is a psychological disorder

Behavior patterns or mental processes that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with a person's ability to cope with everyday life. (1/3 will be diagnosed)

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Interns syndrome

diagnosing yourself with disorder based on symptoms

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Deviance

Is the behavior typical of most people? - Important just because it is not typical does not mean that it is abnormal. Does the behavior violate societies accepted norms?

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Maladaptivity

Does the behavior impair the individual's ability to function adequately in everyday life? Is the behavior hazardous to oneself or to others around them? Does the behavior cause misery and distress instead of happiness and fulfillment?

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Emotional Discomfort and personal distress

Does the problem cause emotional discomfort? - sadness, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, helplessness

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Medical model

The idea that diseases (psychological disorders) can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases cured through treatment in a hospital

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Rosenhan Study

In 1978, David Rosenhan conducted the Rosenhan Study, where he sent a number of people to different mental hospitals all claiming to have been hearing voices. ALL of them were admitted into the mental institutions and diagnosed with schizophrenia . A couple of days later, they all said they stopped hearing the voices and were released When they were in the hospital every aspect of their behavior was seen as part of their illness.

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Physical Signs of anxiety disorders

trembling, sweating, rapid heartbeat, increased blood pressure, flushed face, and feeling of faintness or light-headedness

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GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER

Unexplainable and continual tense uneasy feelings for 6 months or more

- Worried about various things that might happen and plagued by muscular tension, agitation, and sleeplessness. (2/3 women)

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Phobic Disorders

Persistent excessive or irrational fear of a particular object or situation. Ex.

  • Zoophobia - fear of animals

  • Claustrophobia - fear of enclosed spaces

  • Acrophobia - fear of heights

  • Arachnophobia - fear of spiders

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Panic disorder ( Panic Attack or feeling like you’re dying)

Relatively short period of intense fear or discomfort, shortness of breath, dizziness, rapid heartbeat trembling, shaking, choking, and nausea are some of the symptoms.

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Agoraphobia

Fear of being in places in which escape will be difficult or impossible. Avoid movie theaters, malls, buses, trains, any place crowed.

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Causes of anxiety disorders

  • Childhood causes - urges that were repressed

  • Learned behavior

  • Traumatic event

  • Heredity - identical twins - one has an anxiety disorder - 45% chance the other twin has one. Drops to 15% for fraternal twins

  • Kagan studies temperament – found roughly 15-20% of infants display an inhibited temperament, characterized by shyness, timidity, and wariness.

  • Evolutionary

  • One attack - fear of another attack leads to more - vicious circle

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Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Obsessions - unwanted thoughts that occur over and over again

Compulsions - repetitive ritual behaviors.

Usually aware that these obsessions are unjustified - still have to do it

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Trauma and Stressor related disorders ( PTSD)

Feelings of anxiety caused by an experience so traumatic that it would cause stress in almost anyone Ex. Rape, severe child abuse, assault, severe car accidents, airplane crashes, natural disasters, and war atrocities

-Symptoms - flashbacks, nightmares, numbness of feelings, avoidance of stimulus associated with trauma, increase tension.

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Dissociative Disorders - amnesia

-Sudden loss of memory, usually following a stressful or traumatic event

- Cannot be explained biologically - no head injury

- May forget a certain time period - last three months

- May forget everything - don't know who they are

-May persist for a few hour up to years

- Memory is likely to return just as suddenly as it was lost

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Within the Amnesia diagnosis if you have complete memory loss you have an extreme type called

Fugue

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Normal dissociation

daydreaming, lost in your thoughts for a moment

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DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER ( multiple personality disorder)

-Existence of two or more personalities within a single person

-Each individual personality is likely to be different from the others in several ways

-May have different allergies, eyeglass prescriptions.

-Usually severely abused in childhood.

- Different personalities take over to protect the child

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Causes of dissociative disorders

-Develop to avoid thinking about disturbing events

-No biological evidence exists

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Somatoform/Somatic Disorders

-Expression of psychological disorders through physical symptoms

-Not conscious or "faking it"

-Honestly feel pain or believe they can not move their limbs

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Conversion Disorder

-Loss of physical functioning in a major part of body with no medical explanation

-Usually show little or no concern over their symptoms (no matter how serious or unusual the symptoms maybe)

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Causes of somatoform/somatic disorders

-May "convert" stress into a physical problem

- People with certain personality traits are more susceptible

-Cognitive – Focus (think about) draw catastrophic conclusions about any body issues

-Behavioral – if you are sick, you get attention – rewarded

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Mood disorders

-Mood changes that seem inappropriate for situation and exist for an extended period of time

-Very common - In any 6 month period - 8% of women, 4% of men will be diagnosed

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Major depression

-By far the most common of all disorders

-Must have 5 out of 9 symptoms

-**Persistent depressed mood for most of the day

- **Loss of interest or pleasure in all or most activities Significant weight loss or gain due to appetite changes Immediate attention - 15% eventual kill themselves (30,000 deaths in the US annually)

- More women attempt suicide but more men succeed (methods used)

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SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER (SAD)

-Only suffer from depression during the winter months.

-It is believed to be caused by lack of sun

- Therapists suggest light therapy – I just suggest moving to Florida :)

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Dysthymic Disorder

Mild depression for at least two years with no major depressive bouts

ex.Eeyore

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Bipolar disorder ( manic depressions)

-Mania - Extreme high - hyperactivity and chaotic behavior

-Can from one to the other very quickly for no reason o -Manic Phase - impulsive behaviors - wild shopping sprees, quitting their jobs to pursue wild dreams, foolish business investments

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Causes of bipolar disorder

Learned Helplessness - have problems before and got no help, this same

-Heredity - Definite link – twin studies

- 65% of identical 14% fraternal

-Genetics - Serotonin and noradrenalin - drug therapy

-Behavioral – depressed people are depressing to be around. “Learned” or didn’t how to be social which can lead to depression

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90

Schizophrenia

-Usually considered the most serious of the psychological disorders

-Loss of contact with reality

-Extremely difficult to treat and usually worsens with time

-Symptoms - hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech and thought disorder

- May have delusions of grandeur – belief they are more important than others (god complex?)

- Relatively rare - between .5 and 1% of world population Positive vs. Negative symptoms

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Catatonia

disturbance of movement, waxy flexibility

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Schizophrenia - positive and negative

-Positive – Behavioral “Add ons”– hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior

-Negative – Behavioral deficits – flattened emotions, apathy, impaired attention, poverty of speech

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Causes of schizophrenia

-Heredity - risk higher for those with relatives that have schizophrenia o Identical twins - 48% Fraternal 17% Parent - child - 10% Siblings - 8% Both Parents - child - 46%

-More likely to have suffered an injury or trauma around birth

- More likely to have been born in winter

• Brain functions different then "normal" brains. (Dopamine and ventricles) •

-Adolescence use of marijuana or THC may affect those predisposed

-Multiple factors

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Personality disorders

Inflexible traits that disrupt social life or work and/or distress the affected individual

  1. odd-eccentric- cluster A

  2. dramatic-impulsive – Cluster B

  3. anxious-fearful- cluster C

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Avoidant PD

Excessively sensitive to potential rejection, humiliation, or shame; Socially withdrawn in spite of desire for acceptance from others.

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Dependent PD

Excessively lacking in self-reliance and self-esteem. Passively allowing others to make all decisions. Constantly subordinating own needs to others needs.

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anxious-fearful- cluster c

-Avoidant PD

-Dependent PD

-Obsessive-Compulsive PD

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dramatic-impulsive – Cluster B

Histrionic PD

• Narcissistic PD

-Borderline PD

• Antisocial PD

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Antisocial PD

Chronically violating the rights of others. Failing to accept social norms, to form attachments to others, or to sustain consistent work behavior. Exploitive and reckless.

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Borderline PD

Unstable in self-image, mood, and interpersonal relationships. Impulsive and unpredictable.

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