3.3 Biology ncea

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abiotic

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Biology

plants and animals

100 Terms

1

abiotic

Non-living, environmental aspects

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2

abscisic acid

inhibits bud growth and promotes abscission zone formation

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3

abscission

the act of cutting; the natural separation of a leaf or other part of a plant. Due to breakdown of cell layers at their base.

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4

Adaption

inheritable structural, behavioral, or physiological features that increases survival/reproduction

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5

Aestivation

Dormant state that helps an animal withstand extreme temp periods

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6

aggression

belligerent behavior intended to hurt or destroy

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7

Allelopathy

The production of chemicals by plants that inhibit the growth of neighbouring plants

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8

alpha animal

Most dominant individual

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9

Annuals

A flowering plant that completes its entire life cycle in a single year or growing season.

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10

Antibiosis

association between organisms which is injurious to one of them

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11

apical dominance

Tendency for growth to be concentrated at the tip of a plant shoot, because the apical bud partially inhibits axillary bud growth.

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12

apical meristem

area at tip of plant root/stem that produces auxin and is origin of growth/site of mitosis

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13

Auxin

a plant hormone that promotes root formation and bud growth

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14

Batesian mimicry

A type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators.

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15

behaviour

responses, actions, or movement made by an animal

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16

biennial

happening every two years

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17

biological clock

An innate mechanism in living organisms that controls the periodicity of many physiological functions.

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18

ecological niche

the role of a species in its habitat, its biotic and abiotic resource requirements

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19

Elongation

lengthening of a cell prior to division, allows growth to be directional

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20

Endogenous

behaviors caused by internal factors which are independent of external stimuli

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21

Entrainment

the process of resetting the internal clock by synchronizing it with an external environmental cue

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22

environment

all of the external factors affecting organisms, both internal and external

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23

ephemerals

plants with a very short lifespan that take advantage of brief favourable conditions, e.g. flowering plants in a desert

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24

epiphytes

a plant growing on another plant, no obtaining nutrients from it, non-parasitic

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25

ethology

the study of animal behaviour

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26

ethylene gas

a plant hormone regulating fruit ripening, abscission, growth and ageing

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27

etiolation

plant condition of excessively long, weak stems (internodes) and small leaves due to lack of light, yellow colouration

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28

exogenous

caused by external stimuli

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29

exploitation

any relationship between species which enhances the fitness of one specices while decreasing the fitness of the other

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30

facultative relationship

type of relationship where the survival of the organisms involved is not reliant upon the relationship

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31

florigen

the plant hormone which is produced in leaves and travels to a shoot axis to trigger flowering

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32

free running

biological rhythm which persists in consistent environmental conditions

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33

gause's principle

two species in the same habitat cannot permanently occupy the same niche/utilize the same limiting resource

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34

gibberenllins

group of plant hormones which promote stem elongation, leaf growth, and other processes

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35

herbivore

animal which consumes only plant material as its source of nutrition

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36

Biotic

aspects of an environment due to the presence of living organisms

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37

chemotropism

growth response of a plant in response to a chemical concentration gradient

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38

circadian

rhythm of behaviour or intensity which cycles over an approx. 24 hour period in normal environmental conditions

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39

circalunar

rhythm of behaviour or intensity which cycles over approx. 29 days in normal environmental conditions

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40

circaannual

rhythm of behaviour or intensity which cycles over an approx. a year under normal environmental conditions

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41

circatidal

rhythm of behvaiour or intensity which cycles over an approx. 12.4 hours under normal environmental

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42

coleoptile

protective sheath covering the shoot of grass seedlings

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43

commensalism

relationship between two species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed or benefitted

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44

competition

occurs when demand for a resource from organisms in an area exceeds supply, both organisms are negatively affected

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45

co-operation

members of a species co-ordinate activities for their mutual benefit

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46

crepuscular

active at dawn and dusk

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47

cytokinins

any of a group of plant hormones which retard ageing, promote budding and cell division and breaking dormancy

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48

day neutral plants

plants which begin flowering at a certain age rather than in response to day length

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49

diapause

a delay in some stage of an arthropods' development

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50

Diunrnal

active during the day

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51

divarication

forking growth pattern in plant branches as a defense against herbivores

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52

dominant

animal at the highest level of dominance in hierarchy, usually maintained by agonistic behaviour

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53

dormancy

state of temporarily reduced metabolism and a subsequent lack of growth and activity

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54

hibernation

period of dormancy during seasonal cold conditions

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55

hierarchy

social order in an animal group where one animal is dominant over another (others)

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56

home range

area where an animal or group of animals seek food but do not generally defend

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57

homing

innate ability of an animal to navigate through unfamiliar areas to an original location

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58

hydrotropism

growth response of plant roots in a particular direction in response to the presence of water

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59

IAA

indol acetic acid - auxin, plant growth hormone, causes cell elongation, promotes cell growth and differentiation

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60

innate

behaviour which is coded in DNA rather than learned, usually exhibited by all members of a species

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61

interspecific

relationship between members of two or more species

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62

intraspecific

relationship between members of the same species

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63

kinesis

non-directional response of an animal to a stimuli, usually relates to rate of movement or frequency of turning

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64

lateral buds

an embryonic shoot which is situated at the junction between a stem and a leaf

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65

legumes

pod-bearing plants that have root nodules containing symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria

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66

lianas

a climbing plant

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67

long day plants

plants that begin forming flower buds when sunlight hours exceed their critical period

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68

migration

a regular mass movement of individuals over long distances, usually on a seasonal basis

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69

mimicry

a method of avoiding predation by camouflaging, resembling other species that are harmful, either batesian or mullerian

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70

mullerian mimicry

several unpalatable species resemble eachother

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71

mutualism

close relationship between two species from which both benefit, a form of symbiosis

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72

nastic

non-directional movement response of a plant organ to the intensity of an environmental stimulus

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73

neutrality

organisms in the same place and time whose presence has little/no effect on each other

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74

obligate

an organism or relationship that is required to function in that way for survival, e.g. obligate parasite can only live parasitically

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75

over-wintering

range of processes including hibernation, migration and dormancy by which organisms pass through winter conditions.

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76

pair bonding

development of a social bond between the male and female of a monogamous pair

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77

perennials

plants which continue to flower for several years

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78

phase shift

shifting the start time of a rhythm due to a change in environmental conditions

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79

pheromones

chemical released by an animal which influences the behaviour of other members of its species.

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80

photoperiod

the number of daylight hours - changes throughout the year in seasonal environments

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81

phototropism

directional growth response of plants in response to the direction of light

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82

physiological tolerance

the range of values of an abiotic factor that an organism can survive in

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83

phytochrome

the blue-green protein pigment found in most plants which acts as the light receptor for several processes

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84

plant hormone

chemical in a plant which results in a response by other cells in the plant

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85

predation

members of one species kill/eat members of another species

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86

scarification

damage to seed coat required for germination

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87

seed masting

synchronized production of large volumes of seeds within a population of plants

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88

short day plants

plants that begin forming flower buds when sunlight hours are shorter than their critical period.

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89

stimuli

an aspect of the environment which causes some responses, detected by a receptor or sensor

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90

stratification

the vertical pattern of species distribution seen in a community

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91

submissive behaviour

behaviour which reduces aggression from a dominant individual and reinforces the lower status of another

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92

subordinate

animal at a lower level of hierarchy

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93

symbiosis

organisms from different species living in long-lasting and dependent relationships in which at least one participant benefits

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94

taxes

movement of an animal in response to a directional stimulus either towards or away from it

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95

territory

area defended by an animal, usually from animals of the same species

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96

thigmotropism

growth response of plants in response to an object or contact with it

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97

tropism

plant growth in response to the direction of an environmental stimulus, either towards or away from

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98

vernalisation

exposure to cold temperatures that enables or accelerates flowering in some plants, or is needed for seeds to germinate

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99

waggle dance

communication behaviour in bees to direct other forages to a food source

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100

zietgeber

an external environmental cue used to synchronise rhythmic behaviours with external environmental conditions/rhythms

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