psych ch6

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The three debates

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107 Terms

1

The three debates

Nature vs. Nurture

Continuity vs. Discontinuity

Stability vs. Change

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Heritability

statistical measure of how much of the variation in a given trait can be attributed to genetics

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twin studies

Identical twins have the same genotype, and fraternal twins have an average of 50% of their genes in common.

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adoption studies

Similarities with the biological family support nature, while similarities with the adoptive family support nurture.

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Continuity

Is human development a gradual and continuous process in which individuals build on previously acquired knowledge and skills?

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discontinuity

Is it a discontinuous process, involving a series of discrete stages in which new knowledge and behaviors emerge abruptly?

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Example of Continuity

Continuity could be exemplified by an escalator that moves towards the top floor never stopping, while discontinuity is like an elevator that stops at every floor on the way to the top.

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Theories that support discontinuity

  • Freud's psychosexual stages

  • Piaget's stages of cognitive development

  • Erikson's theories of development

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cross-sectional study

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

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longitudinal study

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

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genetic plan

determines how all of the organs will be formed

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Differentiation

stem cells that are capable of forming into any organ in the body begin to specialize as components of certain organs

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mitosis

the process during which zygote divides first into two cells, then four, then eight, and so on till the mass of the cells becomes a baby

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Teratogens

agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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fetal alcohol syndrome

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking

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smoking

miscarriage, stillbirth, prematurity, or complications increases risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

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prenatal period

from conception to birth› divided into 3 phases

Germinal Stage (1st 2 weeks- zygote)

Embryonic Stage (2 weeks - 2 months)

Fetal Stage (2 months - birth)

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germinal stage

one-celled organism (contains chromosomes & genes with genetic info)› enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division› develops into an embryo› less than half of all zygotes survive first two weeks› the outer part of the zygote becomes the placenta (which filters nutrients)

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embryonic period

the developing human organism from 2 weeks through 2nd months. many vital organs form (beating heart) at this time the baby can hear (and recognize) sounds and respond to light

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fetal stage

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

the organs of the fetus develop and become functional

Age of Viability- age at which the baby can survive premature birth (22-24 weeks gestation- getting earlier and earlier)

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john locke's view of babies

that newborns began life as a "tabula rasa" or "blank slate"-an empty brain and no abilities.

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babies naturally...

have innate abilities to find nourishment, interact with others, and avoid harmful situations.

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APGAR

measured at one minutes and five minutes after birth and scored 0-10 (2 points per measure)

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infant reflexes

grasping-

rooting- when you touch a baby's cheek it will turn toward your hand, open its mouth, and search for a nipple-

Moro (startle)

  • stepping-

  • sucking

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neonatal period

birth to one month old

During this stage babies are capable of responding to stimulation from all of their senses.

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infancy period

1 mo. to 24 mo.

This is a period of rapid development but is still heavily reliant on reflexive behavior.

Part of the reason we remember very little between birth and age 3 ½ is that our brain circuits are not fully developed.

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motor development

Progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities

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basic motor skills

grasping and reaching for objects, manipulating objects, sitting up, crawling, walking and running

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continuos

Constantly add new lessons and skills on top of old lessons and skills as they get older.- Grow at a steady, uniform speed. • Even though parents can't see it with their eyes, children are growing all the time right in front of them. • Their bodies make new cells. • Their minds learn new skills as they play and interact with other people every day.

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episodic

Grow discontinuously-children grow in stages as they seem to develop chunks of abilities and to experience events at certain times in life. - To some parents, it may seem that their children learn to do things all of a sudden.- Growing lots in spurts at special times and then are not growing so fast for a while in between the spurts.

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Physical Development

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior› relatively uninfluenced by experience› sets the course for development while experience adjusts it

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Brain Development

At birth, an infant's brain has over 100 billion neurons•

From birth to 3 years, neurons grow as the brain triples in weight due to growth of new dendrites, axon terminals, and increasing numbers of synaptic connections

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synaptic sprouting and pruning

necessary loss of neurons as unused synaptic connections and nerve cells are cleared away to make way for functioning connections and cells and new neural connections to form

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newborn's hearing and sight

Hearing is functional at birth and takes a little while to reach its full potential

• Newborns seem most responsive to high pitches, as in a woman's voice, and low pitches, as in a male's voice

• Vision is least functional and takes 6 months to fully develop- newborns have poor color perception - a fixed distance of about 7-10 inches for clear vision

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prefernetial looking

assumes that the longer an infant spends looking at a stimulus, the more the infant prefers that stimulus over others

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Habituation

the tendency for infants (and adults) to stop paying attention to a stimulus that does not change

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Synchronicity

close coordination between the gazing, vocalizing, touching, and smiling of mothers and infants Babies are preprogrammed to their mother's voice Babies are preprogrammed to recognize faces

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mimicking

The idea that babies will mimic is not something that is unique to human babies.

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Temperment and attachment

Psychological and social development of infants and children involves:- development of personality- development of relationships- a sense of being male or female

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easy

regular in their schedules of waking, sleeping, & eating , adaptable to change, happy babies, easily soothed when distressed

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difficult

opposite of easy ones; irregular in their schedules, unhappy about any kind of change, are loud, active, and tend to be crabby

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slow-to-warm-up child

less grumpy, quieter but slow to adapt to change; if change is introduced gradually, they warm up to new people and new situations

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critical period

The process by which certain animals form attachments

•Specific time during which an organism has to experience stimuli in order to progress through developmental stages proper language has a critical period

•During the critical period we are much more capable of learning a new language than at other, later times.

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stranger anxiety

fear of strangers that infants commonly display

beginning by about 8 months of age

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seperation anxiety

Extreme emotional agitation, fear, and distress particularly in infants when object/loved one leaves

Peaks at between 14 and 18 months

Based on culture

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temperament

a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

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attachment

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

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secure

explore happily; upset when mother departs, but easily soothed upon her return.

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avoidant

willing to explore, don't "touch base," react very little to mother's absence or return

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ambivalent

clinging, unwilling to explore; upset when mother leaves, angry with her on her return

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disorganized/disoriented attachment

unable to decide reaction to mother's return, approach mother with their eyes turned away from her, avoid eye contact

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cupboard theory

lInfants become attached to those who provide the "cupboard" containing the food supply

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pyschological dwarfism

A study of children in emotionally detached family environments showed slower growth and bone development.

When removed from such a situation they may grow again. If, however they are placed back in the poor environment, their growth is stunted once again.

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54

piaget's discontinuos stage model of development

Children will undergo a revolutionary change in thought at each stage.

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schemas

are also the building blocks of development.. they form and change as we develop and organize our knowledge to deal with new experiences and predict future events.

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Assimilation

•process that modifies new information to fit with existing schemas or with what is already known. New information fit our existing view of the world.

•Babies suck on anything put in front of them as if it was a bottle.

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accommodation

•process of restructuring or modifying schemas to incorporate new information. Changes our views to fit new information.

•When a child learns that a butterfly is not a "bird"

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Vygotsky's Theory

Children think and understand primarily through social interaction

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zone of proximal development

•the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with guidance and encouragement

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Libido (Freud)

(psychoanalysis) a Freudian term for sexual urge or desire

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Oedipus complex

boys in love with their mother

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Electra complex

counterpart to the Oedipus complex for females

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identification

boys identify with their dads

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penis envy

girls desire to have a penis; jealous of boys

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Fixation

occurs when development is stopped at a particular stage

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authoritative parenting

parenting style characterized by emotional warmth, high standards for behavior, explanation and consistent enforcement of rules, and inclusion of children in decision making

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authoritarian parenting

style of parenting in which parent is rigid and overly strict, showing little warmth to the child

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permissive parenting

A parenting style characterized by the placement of few limits on the child's behavior.

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univolved parenting

a type of parenting that places few demands on children and that provides them with little warmth

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daycare?

Research has shown that most children thrive in day care, especially socially.

However, a poor-quality daycare experience can influence children to be aggressive, depressed or otherwise maladjusted.

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leisure time

U.S. children have more free time than children in any other country.

Children learn through play... very important to development and not a "waste of time."

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postconventional level

Morality of abstract

principles: to affirm

agreed-upon rights and

personal ethical principles

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conventional level

Morality of law and

social rules: to gain

approval or avoid disapproval

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preconventional level

Morality of self-interest

to avoid punishment

or gain concrete rewards

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75

basic trust vs. mistrust

Birth to 1 year. To develop a sense that the world is safe, a "good place"

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Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities

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intiative vs guilt

Success in this stage of psychosocial development leads to a sense of purpose.

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Industry vs. Inferiority

Erikson's stage between 6 and 11 years, when the child learns to be productive

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identity v. role confusion

(12-18 years) adolescents must make the transition to adulthood, establish an identity, develop a sense of self, and consider a future occupational identity; otherwise, role confusion can result

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Intimacy vs. Isolation

Erikson's stage in which individuals form deeply personal relationships, marry, begin families

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Genrativity vs stagnation

Giving back to society by raising children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and organizations

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Ego Integrity vs. Despair

People in late adulthood either achieve a sense of integrity of the self by accepting the lives they have lived or yield to despair that their lives cannot be relived

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adoloscence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

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puberty

the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

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female reproductive system

ovaries, external genitalia

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male reproductive system

testes, external genitalia

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brain development in the prefrontal cortex of the brain is responsible in part for:

impulse control​

judgment​

decision making​

organization and understanding of information​

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ego centrism

in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

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Introspection

examination of one's own thoughts and feelings

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90

personal fable

type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm

"You just don't understand me; I'm different from you."​

"It can't happen to me" is a risky but common thought​”

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91

imaginary audience

extreme self-consciousness

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menopause

the time of natural cessation of menstruation​ also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines​

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93

Alzheimer's disease

a progressive and irreversible brain disorder​ characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning

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cross-sectional study

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another​

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95

longitudinal study

a study in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period​

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96

verbal intelligence

scores hold steady with age

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nonverbal intelligence

scores decline

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98

crystallized intelligence

one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

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fluid intelligence

one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly​ tends to decrease during late adulthood​

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social clock

the culturally preferred timing of social events​

marriage​

parenthood​

retirement​

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