AP Psych Unit 5 (copy)

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105 Terms

1

memory

the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information.

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2

recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.

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3

recognition

a measure of memory in which the person identifies items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test

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4

relearning

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again

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5

encoding

getting information into memory system-for example, by extracting meaning.

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6

storage

retaining info in memory

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7

retrieval

getting information out of memory storage.

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8

parallel processing

processing many aspects of a problem simultaneously;the brains natural mode of information processing for many functions

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9

sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

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10

short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as digits of a phone number while calling, before the info is stored or forgotten

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11

long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

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12

working memory

a newer understanding of short-term memory that adds conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual info, and of info retrieved from long-term memory

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13

explicit memory

retention of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"

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14

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

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15

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental info, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned info, such as word meanings

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16

implicit memory

retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection

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17

iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

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18

echoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

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19

chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units, often occurs automatically

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20

mnemonics

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

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21

spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

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22

testing effect

enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information

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23

shallow processing

encoding on a basic level, based on the structure or appearance of words

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24

deep processing

encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention

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25

semantic memory

explicit memory of facts and general knowledge; one of the conscious memory systems

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26

episodic memory

explicit memory of personally experienced events; one of the conscious memory systems

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27

hippocampus

a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit (conscious) memories

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28

memory consolidation

the neural storage of a long-term memory

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29

flashbulb memory

a clear, sustained memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

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30

long-term potentiation

an increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation; a neural basis for learning and memory

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31

priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

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32

encoding specificity principle

the idea that cues and contexts specific to a particular memory will be most effective in helping us recall it.

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33

mood-congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood

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34

serial position effect

our tendency to best recall the last and first items in a list

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35

anterograde amnesia

an inability to form new memories

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36

retrograde amnesia

an inability to retrieve info from one's past

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37

proactive interference

the forward-acting disruptive effect of older learning on the recall of new info

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38

retroactive interference

the backward-acting disruptive effect of newer learning on the recall of old info

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39

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

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40

reconsolidation

a process in which previously stored memories, when retrieved, are potentially altered before being stored again

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41

misinformation effect

occurs when misleading info has distorted one's memory of an event

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42

source amnesia

faulty memory for how, when, or where info was learned or imagined

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43

deja vu

the eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.

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44

cognition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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45

concept

a mental groupng of similar objects, events, ideas or people

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46

prototype

a mental image or best example of a category. matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories

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47

creativity

the ability to produce new and valuable ideas

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48

convergent thinking

narrowing the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution

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49

divergent thinking

expanding the number of possible problem solutions; creative thinking that diverges in different directions

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50

algorithm

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. contrasts with the usually speedier but also more error-prone use of heuristics

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51

hueristic

a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than an algorithim

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52

insight

a sudden realization of a problem's solution; contrasts with strategy based solutions

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53

confirmation bias

a tendency to search for info that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

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54

fixation

in cognition, the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an obstacle to problem solving

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55

mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

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56

intuition

an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thoughts, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

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57

representativeness heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant info

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58

availability hueristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness) we presume such events are common

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59

overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments

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60

belief perserverance

clinging to one's initial concepts after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

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61

framing

the way an issue is posed; how an issue is worded can significantly affect decisions and judgments

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62

language

our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.

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63

phoneme

in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

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64

morpheme

in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word

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65

grammer

in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. Semantics is the language’s set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds, and syntax is its set of rules for combing words into grammatically sensible sentences.

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66

babbling stage

beginning around 4 months,the stage of speech development in which an infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

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67

one word stage

the stage in speech development from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.

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68

two word stage

beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements.

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69

telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram ("go car") using mostly nouns and verbs

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70

aphasia

impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (speaking) or to Wernicke's (understanding)

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71

Broca’s area

helps control language expression-an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere , that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.

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72

Wernicke’s area

a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression;usually in the left temporal lobe.

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73

linguistic determinism

the strong form of Whorf's hypothesis--that language controls the way we think and interpret the world around us

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74

linguistic influence

the weaker form of "linguistic relativity"--the idea that language affects thought

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75

intelligence

the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

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76

general intelligence

according to Spearman and others, underlies all mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

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77

factor analysis

a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score

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78

savant syndrome

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing

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79

Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence

Analytical, creative, and practical intelligence

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80

grit

passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals

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81

emotional intelligence

the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions

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82

Thurstone's primary mental abilities

our intelligence may be broken down into 7 distinct factors

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83

Gardner's multiple intelligences

our abilities are best classified into 8 or 9 independent intelligences, which include a broad range of skills beyond traditional school smarts

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84

intelligence test

a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores

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85

achievement test

a test designed to assess what a person has learned

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86

aptitude test

a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn

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87

mental age

a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the level of performance typically associated with children of a certain chronological age

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88

Stanford-Binet

the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test

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89

intelligence quotient (IQ)

defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100

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90

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

most widely used intelligence tests; contains verbal and performance subtests

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91

standardization

defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group

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92

normal curve

the bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes

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93

reliability

the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternative forms of the test, or on retesting

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94

validity

the extent to which a test measures of predicts what it is supposed to

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95

content validity

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

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96

predictive validity

the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict

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97

cohort

a group of people sharing a common characteristic, such as from a given time period

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98

crystallized intelligence

our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

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99

fluid intelligence

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease with age, especially during late adulthood

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100

cross-sectional study

research that compares people of different ages at the same point in time

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