Music test third

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What are the Isms for Orchestra

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1

What are the Isms for Orchestra

Impressionism and Expressionism

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Facts about Impressionism

Began in France as composers looked for alternatives to the 19th century system of major/minor key structure

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3

Whole tone scale: a seven-note scale consisting entirely of whole steps

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Parallel Chords (chords moving in parallel motion i.e.. Mirroring up and down motions)

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Rhythm: more fluid (not as transparent and easy to grasp)

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Forms of works were shorter and less regular in pattern

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7

Who was the leader of impressionism

Claude Debussy (1862-1917)

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8

What is a pentatonic scale

a five note scale

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9

What is a famous impressionism piece by Debussy? What should you listen for?

Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, Listen for lyrical melodies created with nontraditional scales

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10

what is usually shot with in movie scenes when using Debussy's music for film scores?

Bodies of water

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11

Expressionism

a style of music of the mid-20th century characterized by hyper-expression, abandonment of tonal centers, extreme ranges used in melodic structures, forceful accents and abrupt dynamic changes. Composers began to question usefulness and development possibilities of tonal system

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12

Arnold Schoenberg(1874-1951)

expressionism: early works were met with hostility and derision by critics and the public

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13

Sprechstimme

a type of performance that is in between both singing and speaking (used in Pierrot Lunaire)

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14

Serialism

a style of composition where all 12 pitches were treated equally (in previous music, or tonal music, there was emphasis of on note ie. C major)

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15

Tone row:

a set of 12 notes where none repeat (none of the 12 tones can happen more than once in the row)

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16

Piano

plucking or striking strings by hand or with a mallet from inside the keyboard cover, or by "preparing" the piano by placing objects between the strings to create new timbres

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17

Strings—col legno

striking the strings with the wooden back of the bow; tune strings to pitches other than what is usual; snap strings against fingerboard; scratchy tone by extra pressure on the bow

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Wings

play only parts of disassembled instruments, produce more than one tone at a time, clacking noises with the keys

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19

What is an example of Expressionism

Five orchestral Pieces, Op. 16 (movement 4) by Arnold Schoenberg

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20

Neoclassicism

During the first half of the 20th century—some composers wrote in a style similar to the baroque and Classical eras

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Intended to be "absolute music" which means a story is not trying to be told

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Return to older forms (sonata, rondo and other familiar forms return)

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23

Smaller orchestras

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24

Who is a composer for Neoclassicism

Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953

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25

Facts about Sergei Prokofiev

Russian composer, works influenced by political issues in Soviet Russia

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Early works—considered to be dissonant and experimental, but was invited back home after his reputation as a neoclassicist became known

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27

What did Sergei Prokofiev write

Classical symphony, op. 25, Gavotta, 1917: Imitates the style of Haydn

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28

what is minimalism

Music based upon the repetition of melodic, harmonic, and/or rhythmic motifs with little or no variation

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29

Minimalism is a reaction to the complex and esoteric style of compositions of the first half of the 20th century

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30

who is a composer of minimalism

John Adams

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31

Facts about john adams

Won 2002 Pulitzer Prize for music- on the Transmigration of Souls

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(Choral work that honors the victims of the attacks on Sept. 11, 2003)

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Music incorporates Americana, pop music, world music

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34

What did John adams write

Short ride in a Fast machine, 1986

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35

Neo-Romanticism

Neo-romanticism—recent trend in orchestral music, a reaction to atonal and electronic music of the late 20th century

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36

Return to tonality and expression in music

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37

Composer of Neo-romanticism

samuel Barber 1910-1981

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38

characteristics of Samuel barber's neo-romanticism music

Neo-romantic-full of lush extended harmonies of late romantic era mixed with the contemporary sounds of the 20th century

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39

Melodic and accessible

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40

Facts about Adagio for Strings (1938)

written by Samuel Barber.One of the most famous and loved pieces of instrumental music in the world

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41

Barber's best-known work, written for string orchestra (no winds, brass or percussion)

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42

Rhythm section in Jazz consists of _____

drums, bass (electric or acoustic), guitar, piano, sometimes auxiliary percussion

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43

Horns section in a jazz combo consists of _________

trumpet, saxophone (other instruments may appear, such as clarinet or flute), vocals

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44

What is the most common combination in a jazz combo

Jazz combo

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45

what are the most common instruments in jazz

trumpet, sax, drums, bass, and piano

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46

How much of jazz music is a jazz combo? and what does that mean

97%Meaning the majority of the music performed is improvised, and in many cases not even written out and sometimes not even rehearsed before recording (see kind of blue)

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47

What is the most important element of jazz music

the feel

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48

what is the standard feel of jazz music

swing

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49

what is swing?

Swing is used to describe the sense of propulsive rhythmic feel or groove created by the musical interaction between the performers

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50

What happened in 1619

first Africans are sold into slavery in America

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51

What happened in 1817

Congo Square in New Orleans is designated as an official site for slave music and dance

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52

What happened in 1895

Scott Joplin published his first two rags (early Jazz)

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53

What happened in 1899

Duke Ellington is born

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54

what was congo square

a place in new Orleans where slaves set up markets, and participated in music and dance. Though by many as being the birthplace of the music and culture of New Orleans, and it is One of New Orleans (And America's) treasured historical sites. It was also a gathering point during the civil rights movement 19954-1968

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55

Where did the word jazz come from

It is derived from the plantation term jas which means sex

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56

what is early jazz referred to?

Dixie Land music

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57

What is Dixie Land music

A term is used to describe the music being performed in New Orleans in the Early 20th century

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58

Who is the most prominent musician of the early jazz era?

trumpet player Louis Armstrong

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59

Fact about the name Dixie

Dixie is a historical name for the southern United States

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60

Facts about Louis Armstrong

Popularized the trumpet, early jazz, and eventually served as cultural and goodwill ambassador to the United States

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His career spanned five decades

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Armstong was one of the first truly popular African American entertainers to "crossover", whose skin color was secondary to his music in an America that was extremely racially divided

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63

Did Armstrong publicly politicize his race?

very rarely, often to the dismay of fellow African Americans

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64

Is Jazz music considered American classical music?

Yes

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65

Facts about Duke Ellington 1899-1974

One of the most influential musicians (piano), composers, and historical figure in American History

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66

Was a "band leader" of a jazz orchestra, which was based in Harlem

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67

Sought to blur the boundaries between jazz (African American music, "illegitimate") and classical (European music, "legitimate")

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68

What happened to Duke Ellington in 1958

He was presented to Queen Elizabeth II at an arts festival in Yorkshire. Soon after this encounter, Duke outlines what was to become the Queen's Suite

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69

He and his orchestra recorded this material the following year, and he immediately sent it to the Queen

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70

What was the Queen Suites

Six pieces, each of which were inspired by either natural phenomena or human encounters

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71

when did bebop start

mid 1940s

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72

What was bebop

Virtuosic! Bebop vocabulary is typically rapid with many notes. It became very popular by the end of the 1940s

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73

who were the beginning of bebop

Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie

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74

Who was known for cheek puffing

Dizzy Gillespie

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75

Did everyone like the change that bebop brought?

Not everyone liked it, including Armstrong. Some jazz musicians even retired because bebop was just too difficult

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76

Scat singing

improvised jazz singing where the voice is used in imitation of an instrument

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77

what was Louis Armstrong known as?

Satchmo and Pops

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78

Facts about Miles Davis 1926-1991

Widely considered one of the most influential and innovative musicians of the 20th century

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79

Together with his musical groups he was at the forefront of several major developments in jazz music, including bebop, cool jazz, modal jazz, post-bop, and jazz fusion

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80

Was highly influenced by the music of Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie

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81

when did cool jazz happen?

After bebop era

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82

Facts about cool jazz

A minimalist approach was used where sometimes a tune would have several notes, and very few chords (sometimes only two chords)

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83

The album that is the centerpiece of this entire musical aesthetic is Kind of Blue (1959) by the Miles Davis Quintet

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84

Miles Davis Second Quintet

Much freer, less overall formal organization of the music

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85

A prodigy, Tony Williams (drummer) was often referred to as "the prophet" or "wunderkind" by jazz musicians, listeners, and critics

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86

One of the most successful records from this era is Miles Smiles

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87

Electric Miles (1968-1975)

In the 60s and 70s there was a rise of rock, funk and soul music with groups such as sly and the Family Stone, Parliament/Funkadelic, and tower of Power (all of which were influenced by Davis himself)

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88

Music from this era was extremely free in terms of form. Minimal cues, and overall shape were what most of the musicians had to work with

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89

His most influential record during this period was Bitches brew

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90

John Coltrane 1926-1967

Most famous jazz saxophonist of all time

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91

Served in the navy

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92

What is the piece Giant steps

Piece by John coltrane and was one of the most famous pieces in "straight ahead" jazz

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93

Challenging piece that many players use as a showcase for their technical abilities

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94

Coltrane's composing and recording of this work set the standard for jazz technique higher than previously thought capable

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95

What is considered to be coltrane's masterpiece?

Love supreme

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96

Facts about John Coltrane's love supreme

Heralded Coltrane's search for spiritual and musical freedom

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97

Widely recognized as a work of deep spirituality and analyzed with religious subtext

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98

Church of Coltrane

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99

St, John Coltrane African Orthodox church (San Francisco, CA)

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100

A love Supreme

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