F o P S test 3

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

People generally remember

1 / 127

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

128 Terms

1

People generally remember

  • 10% of what they READ

  • 20% of what they HEAR

  • 30% of what they SEE

  • 50% of what they HEAR and SEE

  • 70% of what they SAY

  • 90% of what they SAY as they DO a thing

New cards
2

Visual Aids Add

  • clarity

  • interest

  • retention

  • credibility

  • persuasiveness

New cards
3

7 kinds of Visual Aids

  1. objects & models

  2. photos & drawings

  3. graphs

  4. charts

  5. video

  6. the speaker

  7. presentation technology

New cards
4

Photos & Drawings

  • enlarges it for the audience

  • avoid passing it around

  • display with presentation technology

New cards
5

Graphs

are used to show statistical trends & patterns

New cards
6

3 Types of Graphs

  1. line graph

  2. pie graph

  3. bar graph

New cards
7

Line Graph

uses one or more lines to show changes over time

New cards
8

Pie Graph

highlights segments of circle to show distribution patterns

New cards
9

Bar Graph

uses vertical or horizontal bars to show comparisons

New cards
10

Advantages of charts

  • summarize large block of info, usually as a list

  • help listeners visualize the info

  • show steps of process (how to)

  • help keep it simple & clear

New cards
11

Video

can add tremendous impact

New cards
12

Guidelines for Video

  • use short clips (30 seconds)

  • cue to start of clip

  • integrate it smoothly- embed it

  • avoid low-resolution

  • cite the source

  • confirm its legitimate

New cards
13

The Speaker

  • you can use your own body as a visual aid

    • use body to demonstrate procedure

    • practice to coordinate your words and actions

      • may need to have items prepared ahead of time

New cards
14

Presentation Technology

allows you to combine several audio-visual materials

New cards
15

Presentation Technology Guidelines

  • use strategically

  • use to enhance specific points

  • don’t overpower presentation

    • should NOT be more about graphics than content

  • don’t read from screen

New cards
16

Guidelines for Preparing Visual Aids

  • prepare well in advance

  • keep it simple

  • make sure large enough to see

  • limit amount of text

  • use fonts effectively

  • use color effectively

  • use images strategically

New cards
17

Limited Text

general rule for slides with just text is to limit no more than half-dozen lines of type

New cards
18

Effective Fonts

avoid decorative fonts

New cards
19

Guidelines for Selecting Fonts

  • clear, easy to read

  • normal case

  • two font types per slide

  • standardized across slides

  • properly sized and consistent titles and body text

New cards
20

Effective Colors

color can dramatically increase the impact of visual aids when used effectively

  • high contrast

  • easy to see

  • limited number of color

  • consistent color use across slides

New cards
21

Strategic Images

never add images to a slide unless they are truly needed

New cards
22

Guidelines for Images

  • large enough

  • high-resolution

  • clear, simple

  • title included on the slide

New cards
23

Presenting Visual Aids

  • display where listeners can see

  • avoid passing out to audience

  • display only while discussing

  • explain clearly, concisely

  • talk to audience, not to visual aid

  • practice with visual aids

  • check room & equipment

New cards
24

Persuasion

the process of reinforcing or changing people’s beliefs or actions

New cards
25

Advocate

you act as______________ when you speak to persuade.

New cards
26

Effective Persuasion

depends on the speaker’s ability to convince the audience to follow his/her recommendations or instructions

New cards
27

The Art of Persuasion

  • it is about giving people a reason to listen and then providing them with the right information in the right way so they can alter their existing point of view.

  • was formalized and developed by Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle

  • they said it was the most important public speaking skill for citizens to have

New cards
28

Coercion

when people are forced to think a certain way or feel compelled to act under pressure or threat, they are NOT being persuaded

New cards
29

China’s Social Credit System

a ranking system that monitors your behavior and ranks you on your behavior that positively supports the Communist party and/or punishes you for infractions which include bad driving, smoking in non-smoking zones, buying too many video games and posting anti-government views.

New cards
30

Cancel Culture

a form of public shaming that calls for boycotts of individuals, celebrities or organizations that are deemed to have a bad behavior or one that is opposite of their position

New cards
31

Liberating Tolerance

a Marxist/socialist doctrine, is defined as having intolerance against movements from the right but total tolerance of movements from the left.

New cards
32

Manipulation

using dishonest tactics such as:

  • omitting crucial evidence

  • presenting inaccurate or false information

  • intentionally misrepresenting research to your advantage

    • COVID data might fall into this category

New cards
33

Ethical Goals

must be sound and defensible

New cards
34

Ethical Methods

must be honest and avoid abusive language

New cards
35

Persuasion is

  • chosen

  • honest

  • advocate for or against a certain position

  • practical or issue-based

  • speaker has role of promoter or proponent

New cards
36

Persuasion is NOT

  • coercion or forced

  • manipulation or misleading/false info

  • speaker remains neutral

  • just the facts

New cards
37

How successful you are

depends above all on how you tailor you message to the values, attitudes, and beliefs of your audience

New cards
38

Persuasion

is something a speaker does with an audience, not to an audience

New cards
39

Mental Dialogue

the mental give and take between speaker and listener

  • audience can have both positive and negative reactions

  • speaker MUST think about possible objections or barriers when preparing speech

New cards
40

Target Audience

the portion of audience the speaker most wants to persuade. Most likely, those in the center with moderate beliefs and not the ones who have extreme positions for or against.

New cards
41

3 Major Kinds of Persuasive Speeches

  1. Question of fact

  2. Question of value

  3. Question of policy

New cards
42

Question of Fact

a question about the truth or falsity of an assertion/ viewpoint

  • speaker picks a side, “FOR or AGAINST”

  • draws a conclusion

  • must support conclusion with facts

New cards
43

Organizational Patterns Used with Question of Fact

  • chronological

  • spatial

  • topical

  • cause-and-effect

New cards
44

Question of Value

a question about the worth, “rightness” of an idea or action

  • asks the audience to believe a certain way

  • doesn’t try to prove something as true or false, but argues the “right” or “wrong”/ “good” or “bad” of an idea

  • must justify opinion by establishing standards for the value judgement

  • does not state what action should be taken

New cards
45

Organizational Patterns Used for Question of Value

  • chronological

  • spatial

  • topical

New cards
46

Question of Policy

whether a course of action should or should not be taken

  • urges listeners to choose a specific action

  • shares how to solve a problem

  • calls listeners to action

New cards
47

Organizational Patterns used in Question of Policy

  • problem-solution

  • problem-cause-solution

  • Monroe’s motivated sequence

New cards
48

Passive Agreement Speech

is a persuasive speech where the speaker convinces the audience the policy is desirable but does NOT encourage action

New cards
49

Immediate Action Speech

a persuasive speech in which speaker convinces the audience to act in support of a particular policy

New cards
50

3 Basic Issues of Policy Speeches

  1. Need

  2. Plan

  3. Practicality

New cards
51

Need

is there a problem (need) that requires change from the current policy?

New cards
52

Burden of Proof

obligation facing a persuasive speaker to prove a policy change is necessary

New cards
53

Plan

if there is a problem with current policy, does the speaker have a plan to solve it?

New cards
54

Practicality

will the speaker’s plan solve the problem, or will it create new issues?

New cards
55

4 Speech Patterns used for Policy Speeches

  1. problem-solution

  2. problem-cause-solution

  3. comparative advantages

  4. Monroe’s motivated sequence

New cards
56

Problem-Solution Order

a speech organization in which the 1st point deals with the existence of a problem and the 2nd point presents a solution

New cards
57

Problem-Cause-Solution Order

a speech organization in which the 1st point identifies a problem, the 2nd point analyzes the causes, and the 3rd point presents a solution

New cards
58

Comparative Advantage Order

a speech organization in which each main point explains why a speaker’s solution is preferable to other proposed solutions

  • generally used when the audience already agrees that a problem exists

New cards
59

Monroe’s Motivated Sequence

a 5-step sequence for speeches that seek immediate action. Must identify and respond to what will motivate an audience

New cards
60

4 Methods used to Persuade

  1. built credibility

  2. used evidence

  3. sound reasoning

  4. appealed to emotions

New cards
61

Credibility

perception of speaker’s competence & character

  • ethos= Aristotle’s name for credibility

The more favorably listeners view a speaker, the more likely they are to accept the speaker’s message

New cards
62

Competence

the audience’s perception of the speaker’s intelligence, expertise, and knowledge of the subject

New cards
63

Character

the audience’s perception of the speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience

New cards
64

3 Types of Credibility

  1. initial

  2. derived

  3. terminal

New cards
65

Initial Credibility

credibility speaker had before the speech

New cards
66

Derived Credibility

credibility produced during the speech

New cards
67

Terminal Credibility

credibility at end of the speech

New cards
68

Enhancing Credibility

everything you say and do in a speech affects your credibility

New cards
69

3 Strategies for Enhancing Credibility

  1. explain your competence

  2. establish common ground

  3. speak expressively, with conviction

    1. sincere, honest & straight forward is best

New cards
70

Argument

presenting claims and supporting them with evidence and reasoning

New cards
71

Claim

a position/assertion speaker wants the audience to accept

New cards
72

Evidence

supporting materials-- narratives, definitions, testimony, facts & statistics

New cards
73

Reasoning

the method/process used to represent the claim and arrive at argument’s conclusion

New cards
74

Evidence Types

  • logos- appeals to logic

  • ethos- appeals to credibility

  • pathos- appeals to emotion

  • mythos- appeals to cultural beliefs

New cards
75

Guidelines for using Evidence

  • use specific evidence

  • use novel (new) evidence

  • use credible evidence

  • make a clear point of evidence

    • don’t assume audience will get it

New cards
76

Reasoning

the process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence

New cards
77

4 Methods of Resoning

  1. specific instances (inductive)

  2. principle (deductive)

  3. causal

  4. analogical

New cards
78

Specific Instances

moving from particular facts to general conclusion

New cards
79

Guidelines for using Specific Instances

  • avoid hasty generalizations

  • qualify argument when necessary

  • reinforce argument with statistics, testimony

New cards
80

Reasoning from Principle

moving from a general principle to a specific conclusion

  • opposite of specific reasoning

  • also known as Deductive Reasoning

New cards
81

Guidelines for Reasoning from Principles

  • use a major premise listeners will accept

  • provide evidence for minor premise

New cards
82

Causal Reasoning

establishing relationship between causes and effects

New cards
83

Guidelines for Causal Reasoning

  • avoid fallacy of false cause

  • do not assume events have only one cause

New cards
84

Analogical Reasoning

speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for one case is also true for the other case

  • cases must be essentially alike

New cards
85

Fallacies

an error in reasoning/ in your argument

  • may first appear valid and reasonable

  • upon inspection, fallacies do not hold up

New cards
86

10 Common Fallacies

  1. Hasty Generalization

  2. False Cause

  3. Invalid Analogy

  4. Bandwagon Fallacy

  5. Red Herring

  6. Ad Hominem

  7. Either-or

  8. Slippery Slop

  9. Appeal to Tradition

  10. Appeal to Novelty

New cards
87

Hasty Generalization

speaker jumps to conclusion on basis of too few facts or unusual cases

New cards
88

False Cause

speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event followed another, the first event caused the 2nd event

New cards
89

Invalid Analogy

when two cases being compared are NOT essentially alike

New cards
90

Bandwagon

assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable

New cards
91

Red Herring

introduces an irrelevant issue in order to divert attention from the subject under discussion

New cards
92

Ad Homineum

attacking the person rather than dealing with the real issue

New cards
93

Either-or

forcing choice between two alternative when more than two exist

New cards
94

Slippery Slope

assuming first step will lead to later steps that can’t be prevented

New cards
95

Appeal to Tradition

assuming something old is automatically better than new

New cards
96

Appeal to Novelty

assuming something new is automatically better than old

New cards
97

Emotional Appeals or Pathos

play an important part of persuasion

  • appeals intended to evoke sadness, anger, happiness, pride, fear, etc.

New cards
98

3 Ways to Generate Emotional Appeal

  1. use emotionally charged language (politics)

  2. use vivid examples (paint a picture)

  3. speak with sincerity and conviction (heartfelt)

New cards
99

Emotional Appeals

have potential power; therefore, they need to be used with a strong sense of ethical responsibility

  • make sure appropriate to topic

  • don’t substitute emotion or your opinion for evidence, reasoning

New cards
100

Special Occasion Speeches

are different than normal speeches. They include these types of events:

  • christenings & funerals

  • weddings

  • graduations & retirements

  • award ceremonies

  • inaugurals

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 84 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 40 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 106 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard55 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)