Week 1 MSK

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ECM

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109 Terms

1

ECM

contains fluid transporting nutrients to cells, carrying away their wastes and secretory products

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2

Epithelial tissue function

lining of body cavities, glandular secretion

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3

CT function

structural support, nutrition, storage (fat, water, electrolytes), defense, repair, information

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4

Most abundant CT cells?

Fibroblasts

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5

Fibroblast function

synthesize and secrete fibers and ground substance, create and export factors to influence adjacent cell growth and proliferation

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6

Adipocyte function

store fat, produce hormones and cytokines responsible for metabolism and immune health

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7

What are macrophages derived from?

Monocytes

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8

Macrophage function

phagocytize foreign particles, microorganisms, and damaged tissues, initiate immune response, initiate turnover of ECM

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9

How do macrophages initiate immune response?

Present antigens to lymphocytes, secrete cytokines

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10

What are cytokines?

Cell-signaling proteins

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11

How do macrophages initiate ECM turnover?

Secrete hydrolytic enzymes (collagenase)

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12

What are the four main cells in CT?

fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells

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13

What are mast cells

WBC commonly in CT

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14

Mast cell functions

Chemical mediators of inflammatory response, allergic reactions

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15

Chemical mediators of mast cells

histamine, heparin, eosinophil chemotactic factor, etc.

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16

Collagen type I

thick collagen found in CT (tendons, skin, organs)

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17

Collagen type III

reticular fibers, flexible meshwork (smooth muscle, endocrine glands, liver)

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18

What do elastin fibers contain?

elastin and fibrilin

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19

Elastin fiber locations

skin, trachea

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20

Transient cells of CT

plasma, leukocytes (eosinophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils)

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21

What is the most widespread CT?

Loose CT

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22

Loose CT properties

ground substance/cells > fibers, contain collagen, reticular, and elastic fibers, loose irregular meshwork, flexible, vascularized, slight resistance to stress

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23

Loose CT locations

Stomach/intestinal epithelia

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24

Loose CT functions

cushions organs, storehouse of immune cells for many organs, can reduce inflammation

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25

Dense Irregular CT properties

collagen fibers in 3D network, consist of mostly fibroblasts, resist pressure in many directions

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26

Dense Irregular CT locations

dermis, gut, surrounding organs

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27

Dense Irregular CT functions

give structural strength/flexibility to organs

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28

Dense Regular CT properties

collagen fibers lay parallel to each other, primarily fibroblasts, resistant to pressure along one plane

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29

Dense Regular CT locations

tendons, ligaments

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30

What are the two types of adipose tissue?

unilocular (white), multilocular (brown)

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31

White fat function

fat storage

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32

Brown fat function

generates heat in newborns/fetuses

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33

Elastin properties

dense, irregular elastic tissue

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34

Elastin locations

Middle layer of large arteries, some ligaments

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35

Reticular locations

hematopoietic bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen

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36

What is the major determinant of the properties of cartilage?

ECM composition

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37

How is cartilage different from every other form of CT?

It is avascular and only has one type of cell (chondrocytes)

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38

What is the most common form of cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage

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39

Hyaline cartilage locations

Large airway walls, ends of bones in synovial joints, epiphyseal plates in youth

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40

Hyaline cartilage function

Provide smooth gliding surfaces for bones, support body structures

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41

Elastic cartilage function

facilitates speech, provides flexible support to larynx

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42

Fibrocartilage locations

vertebrae, pubic symphysis, some tendon/ligament attachments

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43

Fibrocartilage function

shock absorption, prevent bone to bone contact

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44

Bone function

Provide structure of body, protect internal organs, act as lever for muscles to act on, house and protect CNS, form RBCs, reservoir of Ca2+

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45

What are the four types of bone cells?

Osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts

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46

Osteoprogenitor cell function

stem cells to become osteoblasts

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47

Osteoblast function

development of bone matrix (osteoid) and initial mineralization, which form osteocytes

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48

How long can osteocyte cells live?

20-30 years

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49

Osteoclast function

Removal and turnover of bone matrix by secreting bone degrading enzymes and hydrogen ions

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50

Periosteum properties

Cover outer surface of bones, contain BVs and nerves, fibroblasts generate collagen fibers to link layers together, contain osteoprogenitor cells

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51

Endosteum properties

Covers inner surface of bones, contains osteoprogenitors, inactive osteoblasts

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52

Primary bone

Initial bone produced by osteoblasts

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53

Secondary bone

Replaces primary bone, creating uniform layers of fibers and cells to create stronger bone

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54

Bone collar

Initial bone created by intramembranous ossification

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55

Primary ossification center creation

BVs penetrate bone collar, osteoprogenitors produce osteoblasts, deposits primary bone onto matrix, POC in center of bone

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56

Secondary ossification center creation

BVs invade epiphysis after birth, SOC left by ends of long bone

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57

Bone growth after birth

Epiphyseal growth plate provides matrix for primary and secondary ossification centers until it disappears

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58

Steps to bone remodeling

  1. Osteoblasts induce monocyte fusion to make osteoclasts

  2. Osteoblasts regulate osteoclasts

  3. Osteoclasts create tunnel in bone, osteoblasts produce matrix

  4. BVs travel into tunnel to provide nutrition

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59

How much of the body’s total calcium is stored in bones?

more than 90%

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60

Two hormones responsible for Ca2+ regulation

parathyroid and calcitonin

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61

Cycle of bone fracture

  1. Ruptured BVs, loss of osteocytes and bone matrix

  2. Blood clot forms

  3. Periosteum and endosteum proliferate, osteoblasts secrete matrix

  4. CT and hyaline cartilage callus forms, replaced with primary bone via endochondral ossification

  5. Bone remodeling occurs to produce secondary bone

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62

Individual muscle cells

Myofibers (myocytes)

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63

3 layers of protective CT in muscles

epimysium, perimysium, endomysium

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64

Epimysium properties

Dense CT, continuous with portions of perimysium, tendons, cover entire muscle

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65

Perimysium properties

Dense CT (thinner than epimysium), surrounds fascicles, organizes myofibers

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66

Endomysium properties

Thin CT layer, surround each myofiber

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67

Myofibril

cylindrical array of actin and myosin filaments, run the length of myofiber

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68

Sarcomere

contractile unit of myofiber, split myofiber and myofibrils into sections, provide striated appearance

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69

When do humans reach their maximum number of myofibers?

Shortly after birth

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70

How do muscles grow?

Muscles gain length naturally until body growth stops, supported by satellite cells, additional growth as a result of exercise also a result of satellite cells, creating additional myofibrils and larger myofibers

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71

How do muscles repair?

Satellite cells provide limited healing by dividing and fusing with myofibers

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72

What blocks myosin binding sites on actin?

Troponin

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73

How do muscles contract?

ATP-driven myosin heads bind to actin, pulling it towards the middle of the myosin filament

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74

How does the motor unit (neuromuscular junction) initiate muscle contraction?

Action potential arrive at NMJ, ACh released from neuron, diffuses into sarcolemma, opens ion channels and causes depolarization, Ca gets released and allows for contraction

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75

Two types of nervous system cells?

Neurons and glial cells

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76

Anatomic components of NS

central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS)

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77

Two main organs of the CNS

Brain and spinal cord

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78

PNS function

provide sensory information from outside world, deliver commands to effectors such as muscles and glands

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79

CNS function

integrates sensory input, produced coordinated outputs

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80

Two functional components of NS

Somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary)

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81

Two branches of ANS

parasympathetic and sympathetic

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82

Dendrites

Receive and integrate incoming signals

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83

Neurofilaments

Extend from cell body, provide support throughout neuron

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84

Axon

Connect cell body to terminal synapses, deliver signals from cell body to synapses

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85

Synapse

Connection of axon terminal and dendrites of next neuron

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86

How do neurons carry signals from one another?

Transmission accomplished by changes of resting membrane potential, decrease causes depolarization, release of neurotransmitters

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87

Bilateral

both sides

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88

Unilateral

one side

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89

Ipsilateral

same side (action)

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90

Contralateral

opposite side

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91

Three classifications of joints

Fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

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92

Three types of fibrous joints

suture, syndesmosis, gomphosis

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93

What are syndesmosis joints?

interosseous membranes betwen bones

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94

Where are syndesmosis joints present?

radius and ulna, tibia and fibula

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95

What are the types of cartilaginous joints

primary (synchondrosis), secondary (symphysis)

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96

What type of cartilage is used in primary cartilaginous joints?

hyaline cartilage (slight bending)

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97

What type of cartilage is used in secondary cartilaginous joints?

fibrocartilage

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98

Where can primary cartilaginous joints be found?

epiphyseal plates, first sternocostal joint

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99

Where can secondary cartilaginous joints be found?

intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis

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100

Most common joint type in the body?

synovial

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