psych 31 exams

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Who was the social psychology professor at Yale who designed an obedience study in order to test the defense of "I was just following orders" typically used by accused Nazis?

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1

Who was the social psychology professor at Yale who designed an obedience study in order to test the defense of "I was just following orders" typically used by accused Nazis?

Milgram

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2

Henry is juror number four in a murder trial. He believes the accused is guilty, but when the jurors vote it becomes clear he is the only one that thinks this way. Henry votes not guilty along with the other jurors despite what he sees as evidence clearly indicating guilt. This is an example of the ________ effect.

Asch

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3

Frankie is a cat who likes to climb on curtains. Frankie's owner is tired of his curtains being ruined by the cat, so he decides to stop this behavior by squirting Frankie with a water gun every time the cat goes near the curtains. This is an example of

punishment.

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4

An Experiment is

a type of study designed specifically to answer the question of whether there is a causal relationship between two variables.

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5

Which of the following is one of the potential benefits of the scientific approach

It can help individuals make better decisions.

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6

The purpose of the manipulation of the independent variable in an experiment is to

help determine whether that variable causes changes in the dependent variable

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7

Much of popular psychology is based on

assumptions about behavior based on intuition

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8

________ refers to the ability to consistently produce a given result.

reliability

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9

Devine et al. are interested in assessing whether active versus passive play causes a preference for sweet or salty foods in toddlers. They assign groups of children to either an active play, passive play, or no play group and record their food choices when presented with a variety of sweet and salty foods. In this study, ________ is the independent variable and ________ is the control group.

type of play; no play

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10

Which of the following is a scientific way of determining facts?

empirical studies

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11

The variable that is manipulated by the experimenter is called:

Independent Variable

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12

Jamila is in a study that aims to evaluate the effects of a new vitamin drink on energy levels. She is told that she will be in the group receiving the drink and is asked to rate her energy levels at different points throughout the day. She feels very energized by the drink and rates her energy levels high. At the end of the study, she is debriefed and told that the experiment involved deception. She was actually in the group that received only flavored water. What best describes Jamila's experience?

Placebo effect

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13

The ________ is controlled by the experimenter.

independent variable

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14

Concluding that when two variables go together statistically (correlation) that one causes the other is know as

inferring causation from correlation

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15

is the extent to which a result of a study can be attributed to the independent variable.

Internal Validity

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16

In experiments, random assignment is used to

control for extraneous variables

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17

The only way to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables is to conduct a(n) ________.

experiment

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18

In a within-subjects (single subject design) experiment, each participant is tested

under all of the conditions in the experiment

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19

Harrison et al. are conducting a study assessing the ability of depressed versus non-depressed participants to remember negative emotions in a short story about a family whose car breaks down. They plan to ask participants to read the story and then make a list of the emotions expressed in the story. Before beginning the study, they make a list of negative emotions (e.g., sadness and anger) that they will record from the participants' responses. In this example, negative emotions are the ________.

dependent variable

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20

Which of the following research designs will allow cause-and-effect conclusions?

experimental

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21

The ________ variable measures effects of the independent variable.

dependent

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22

In a ______________________ each participant is tested in only one condition of the experiment.

between subjects (group design)

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23

Which of the following is not a major reason that we should know about psychological myths

Introduction to psychology can be full of myths

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24

A school psychologist decides to begin using shoe size as a substitute for intelligence testing. The would likely find the reliability of such testing to be ________, and the validity to be _________.

high; low

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25

There is a positive correlation between taking multivitamins and using recreational drugs. What does this mean?

people who take multivitamins are also more likely to use recreational drugs

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26

A psychological measure that gives the same results each time it is administered under the same conditions is said to be

reliable

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27

A(n) ________ is a variable that affects both variables of interest and may falsely give the impression of a cause-and-effect relationship.

confounding variable

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28

________ refers to the ability of an instrument or tool to accurately measure what it is supposed to measure.

validity

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29

Popular TV programs portray approximately 75% of individuals with mental illness as being violent, even though the true percentage is much lower than that. This is an example of which common contributor to psychological myths?

exposure to a biased sample

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30

What is the difference between a positive correlation and a negative correlation?

in a positive correlation, as one variable increases, the other also increases, whereas for a negative correlation, as one increases the other decreases

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31

________ assesses the consistency of observations by different observers.

inter-rater reliability

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32

Research shows that people who smoke cigarettes are more likely to get lung cancer than those who do not smoke. This research alone demonstrates that ________.

there is a relationship between smoking and lung cancer

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33

An intelligence test yields the same results when administered on three separate occasions. However, the test's results are more strongly correlated with hours spent doing homework than they are with other standardized intelligence tests. This test has________ reliability and ________ validity.

high; low

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34

__________ is the extent to which a result of a study can be generalized across people, environment, species, and setting.

External Validity

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35

The fact that we often pay attention to some types of examples at the cost of others is part of which of the ten major contributions to myths?

selective perception and memory

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36

A professor decides to use class participation (asking or answering questions) as the major measure of knowledge learned for the class. If you know that participation in class is not highly correlated with final grades, what conclusion would you draw about the professors use of class participation as the major measure of knowledge learned for the class.

It is not a highly valid measure

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37

________ means that there is a relationship between two or more variables.

correlation

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38

A negative correlation means ________.

one variable decreases as the other increases

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39

What is a limitation that affects the generalizability of research results?

small sample size

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40

Ava and Ben are both observing the same participants and recording data to compare later. Why would researchers want two different observers for the same participants??

To establish good reliability of the observations

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41

A sample that ________ is most likely to yield generalizable results.

is large and randomly selected

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42

After measuring students grades and hours spent studying, researchers find that students who study more hours get better grades. Researchers conclude that the more studying causes better grades. What is wrong with this design or conclusion?

they have inferred causation from correlation

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43

The division of the nervous system that is encased in bone and processes information is called the _____ nervous system.

central

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44

Before neurotransmitters are released into a synapse, they are held in containers known as

vesicles

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45

Rashaun saw something terrifying. His muscles tensed, he began breathing more rapidly, and he began to sweat. Having taken introductory psychology, Rashaun knew that the _____ division of his _____ nervous system had been activated.

sympathetic; autonomic

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46

When the electrochemical impulse reaches the end of a neuron, _____ are released into the _____.

neurotransmitters; synapse

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47

central nervous system is comprised of ________.

brain and spinal cord

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48

During the 1960s, a person with severe epilepsy that caused seizures in both hemispheres of the brain most likely had surgery on his or her

corpus callosum

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49

Once a neurotransmitter is released into the synapse, it is most like a(n)

key looking for a lock

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50

Aileen notices an attractive guy that she met the evening before. Her heart beats faster and her palms become sweaty. Apparently, the _____ division of Aileen's _____ nervous system has become activated.

sympathetic; autonomic

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51

A person not wearing a seat belt in a car accident is likely to hit his or her head on the car's windshield, damaging the frontal lobes of the brain. Such damage would most likely cause the person to have difficulty

making voluntary movements, but the reflexes would be intact.

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52

Yao is participating in a study investigating sleep patterns. As part of the study, researchers paste electrodes to Yao's scalp. The electrodes are then hooked up to an electroencephalograph (EEG), which will provide information about the

general electrical activity of the brain during sleep.

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53

_________ is the process through which people take raw _________ from the environment and interpret them, using knowledge, experience, and understanding of the world, so that the __________ become meaningful experiences.

perception; sensation; sensation

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54

Sensation consists of _____, and perception consists of _____.

collecting raw information about the environment; interpreting environmental information

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55

_________ is a stage of sleep distinguished by random or rapid movement of the eyes and is usually accompanied by a propensity of dreaming vividly.

Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep

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56

The most common type of attachment - also considered the healthiest - is called __________.

secure attachment

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57

__________ is best defined as a deep, affectionate, close, and enduring relationship to important figures.

Attachment

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58

Which term refers to the adjustment of a schema by adding information similar to what is already known?

assimilation

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59

Which of the following is the best example of social facilitation?

Sarah runs the mile much faster when she runs against someone.

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60

In an experiment, a flash of light is paired with a mild electric shock to a participant's finger. After several trials, the participant begins to pull his finger away after seeing the flash of light. The experimenter then begins to present just the flash, but no shock. After several trials the participant will

gradually cease pulling his finger away after the flash of light.

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61

The chemical imbalance theory suggests that _________________, and research on the theory has demonstrated it to be _________________.

mental disorders are often caused by too much or too little neurotransmitters in the synapses of the brain; false

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62

After graduation with their final degree and over the course of their career, therapist's predictive abilities tend to

remain about the same

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63

Dr. Duncan is a therapist who works with men accused of domestic violence. Although it is difficult, she does her best to be non-judgmental during therapy sessions. Which aspect of client-centered therapy is this?

unconditional positive regard

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64

A _________ approach to treatment focuses on helping the individual bring out and resolve their internal conflict.

Psychodynamic

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65

A person diagnosed with _________ is characterized by extreme and persistent fear and avoidance of social situations in which the person could potentially be evaluated negatively by others.

social anxiety disorder

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66

Professor A: who was the leader of the civil rights movement from 1954 to 1968?

Penelope: it was Martin Luther King!

Professor A: yes! great job Penelope!

In this dialogue, Penelope used __________ memory to answer the professor.

Semantic

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67

(50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology) T/F: We acquire schemas from past events and experiences, and they shape our perceptions of new and past experiences.

True

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68

Spurling et al. investigated the effects of two vocabulary learning strategies on word retention two weeks later. In this example, learning strategy is the ________ variable and word retention is the ________ variable.

independent; dependent

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69

A neuron evokes the action potential of another neuron by releasing _____ into the synapse that fit into the _____ of the other neuron.

neurotransmitters; receptors

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70

Patrick slipped on a banana peel and hit his head on the ground. He has had difficulty seeing since the accident. Patrick has most likely damaged his _____ lobe.

occipital

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71

The motor cortex controls _____ movements. The region of the motor cortex responsible for moving the right hand is near the region of the _____ cortex that receives information from the right hand.

voluntary; somatosensory

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72

The two major divisions of the nervous system are the _____ and _____ nervous systems.

central; peripheral

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73

As a signal travels from one neuron to another, it is received by the _____ and carried to the cell body; from here, the signal is carried through the _____.

dendrites; axon

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74

The ________ receive(s) incoming signals from other neurons.

dendrites

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75

In a ______________________ each participant is tested in only one condition of the experiment.

between subjects (group design)

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76

Concluding that when two variables go together statistically (correlation) that one causes the other is know as

inferring causation from correlation

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77

A school psychologist decides to begin using shoe size as a substitute for intelligence testing. The would likely find the reliability of such testing to be ________, and the validity to be _________.

high; low

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78

Ava and Ben are both observing the same participants and recording data to compare later. Why would researchers want two different observers for the same participants??

To establish good reliability of the observations

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79

Petra walks into a brightly lit Psychology lab to participate in an experiment involving the ability to perceive the colors of the rainbow. Which photoreceptors will be most useful during this experiment?

cones

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80

One of the basic processes in perceptual organization is __________ which is defined as the process that allows us to make sense of more information simultaneously

Grouping

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81

What is described by the concept of perception?

how sensory information is interpreted and consciously experienced

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82

In one experiment, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) conducted an unprecedented nationwide test during a Sunday night TV program. During the experiment, CBC subliminally flashed the message "phone now" on the screen 352 times. After the experiment, telephone company records showed that phone usage __________ and the local television station reported __________ in number of calls.

did not increase or decrease; no surge

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83

One of the basic processes in perceptual organization is __________ which is defined as the process in which an individual focuses on some information and ignore other information to make sense of all the input.

Figure-Ground Organization

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84

A theory of color perception that states that color is coded in opponent pairs: black-white, yellow-blue, and red-green.

Opponent-process Theory

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85

In it's simplest explanation, __________ is a type of processing in which perception is influenced by the organism's available knowledge, experience, and thoughts.

Top-down Processing

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86

Alvin has a congenital defect. He lacks the ability to see either red or green, but he can see blue and yellow. This finding conforms nicely with the _____ theory of color vision.

opponent-process

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87

Which field of psychology includes the following concepts: figure-ground relationship, law of continuity, and principle of closure?

Gestalt

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88

Which of the following is the best example of a sensation?

You see a man with a gun threatening a store clerk.

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89

Absolute Threshold is best define as the minimum amount of stimulus energy that can be detected ___ of the time.

50%

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90

__________ is the repeated variation in pressure that spreads out in three dimensions.

wave

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91

________ refers to the way that sensory information is interpreted and consciously experienced; ________ refers to what happens when sensory information is detected by a sensory receptor.

perception; sensation

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92

__________ is what happens when sensory information is detected by a sensory receptor

Sensastion

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93

(50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology) According to literature, psychologists can demonstrate __________ and __________ subliminal effects under tightly controlled settings.

short-lived; modest

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94

Which of the following is the best example of a sensation?

You see a man with a gun threatening a store clerk.

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95

The minimum amount of stimulus (light, sound, etc.,) required for an organism to detect it's presence at least 50% of the time.

Absolute Threshold

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96

__________ messages from the sense that make up the raw information that affects many kinds of behavior and mental processes.

Sensation

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97

What kind of processing is exemplified by the following scenario? Shimon offers Mouin some salmon. Mouin thinks, "How nice. My friend is offering me fish. I wonder where he got it." This thought leads Mouin to feel happy, appreciative, and curious; he responds with a smile and an extended hand.

top-down

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98

(50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology) Modern psychology accepts that much of our mental processing happens ___________.

outside of our immediate awareness

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99

A theory of color perception that states that color vision is mediated by the activity across the three groups of cones

Trichromatic Theory

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100

Light waves are transmitted across the ________ and enter the eye through the ________.

cornea; pupil

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