Physiology Week 1

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

define human physiology

1 / 105

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

106 Terms

1

define human physiology

the study of the human body & its parts function

New cards
2

describe the molecular level of organization.

consists of all molecules, which are groups of atoms bound together

New cards
3

how does the molecular level relate to the other levels of organization?

many different molecules come together to form a cell & its parts

New cards
4

describe the cellular level of organization.

consists of cells, the basic unit of life

New cards
5

how does the cellular level relate to the other levels of organization?

cells come together to form tissues

New cards
6

describe the tissue level of organization.

consists of groups of similar cells that come together to perform specific functions

New cards
7

how does the tissue level relate to the other levels of organization?

the four types of tisue come together to form organs/different parts of the body

New cards
8

describe the organ system level.

consists of 2 or more tissues that come together to perform specific functions

New cards
9

how does the organ system level relate to the other levels of organization?

organ systems keep us alive and form many key body components

New cards
10

what is homeostasis?

mainteince of a relatively stable internal environment

New cards
11

what is an example of homeostasis?

regulation of body temperature

New cards
12

what is integration?

when different cells, tissue, or organs come together to form a specific function

New cards
13

what is an example of integration?

central nervous system, cardiovascular system, kidneys & adrenal glands all come together to regulate blood pressure

New cards
14

what is communication?

process of talking to different parts of the body in order to execute a certain function

New cards
15

what is an example of communication?

cardiac muscle cells are able to transmit electrical signals with one another through the presence of gap junctions

New cards
16

what is a mechanism of action?

how a physiological process occurs

New cards
17

what is an example of a mechanism of action?

pancreas regulates blood glucose through relase of insulin, which binds to target tissues to decrease plasma glucose levels

New cards
18

what is a structure-function relationship?

how a body part is organized and its designated function are closely related

New cards
19

what is an example of a structure-function relationship?

more dendrites a neuron has, the greater the amount of input signals a neuron can recieve

New cards
20
<p>where is the intracellular fluid located? </p>

where is the intracellular fluid located?

B

New cards
21
<p>where is the extracellular fluid located? </p>

where is the extracellular fluid located?

C

New cards
22
<p>where is the plasma located? </p>

where is the plasma located?

A

New cards
23

which fluid components make up the internal environment?

interstitial fluid & plasma

New cards
24

identify whether glucose found within the plasma is part of the cell’s external or internal environment. explain how you came to your conclusion.

internal environment because plasma is part of a cell’s internal environment

New cards
25

identify whether glucose found w/in the urine in the bladder is part of the cell’s external/internal environment. explain how you came to your conclusion.

external environment because the urinary system moves fluids outside of the body

New cards
26

Below is an example of the reflex arc known as the swallowing reflex.
1. After swallowing a bite of food, the food stretches the soft pallet which is in the back of the
mouth.
2. These physical changes caused by food hitting the soft pallet triggers mechanoreceptors
(receptors sensitive to changes in length).
3. Afferent sensory neurons send signals to the central brain.
4. The brain sends a message to skeletal muscle present in the esophagus through efferent nerves
which causes the soft pallet to elevate, the glottis to close and the opening of the upper
esophageal sphincter.
5. Food can move deeper in the esophagus/into the stomach and the back of the mouth is cleared.
The soft pallet, glottis and upper esophageal sphincter return to their original positions. Identify the stimulus in this reflex arc.

food stretching soft pallet

New cards
27

Below is an example of the reflex arc known as the swallowing reflex.
1. After swallowing a bite of food, the food stretches the soft pallet which is in the back of the
mouth.
2. These physical changes caused by food hitting the soft pallet triggers mechanoreceptors
(receptors sensitive to changes in length).
3. Afferent sensory neurons send signals to the central brain.
4. The brain sends a message to skeletal muscle present in the esophagus through efferent nerves which causes the soft pallet to elevate, the glottis to close and the opening of the upper esophageal sphincter.
5. Food can move deeper in the esophagus/into the stomach and the back of the mouth is cleared.
The soft pallet, glottis and upper esophageal sphincter return to their original positions. Identify the receptor in this reflex arc.

mechanoreceptors

New cards
28

Below is an example of the reflex arc known as the swallowing reflex.
1. After swallowing a bite of food, the food stretches the soft pallet which is in the back of the
mouth.
2. These physical changes caused by food hitting the soft pallet triggers mechanoreceptors
(receptors sensitive to changes in length).
3. Afferent sensory neurons send signals to the central brain.
4. The brain sends a message to skeletal muscle present in the esophagus through efferent nerves which causes the soft pallet to elevate, the glottis to close and the opening of the upper esophageal sphincter.
5. Food can move deeper in the esophagus/into the stomach and the back of the mouth is cleared.
The soft pallet, glottis and upper esophageal sphincter return to their original positions. Identify the afferent pathway in this reflex arc.

afferent sensory neurons

New cards
29

Below is an example of the reflex arc known as the swallowing reflex.
1. After swallowing a bite of food, the food stretches the soft pallet which is in the back of the
mouth.
2. These physical changes caused by food hitting the soft pallet triggers mechanoreceptors
(receptors sensitive to changes in length).
3. Afferent sensory neurons send signals to the central brain.
4. The brain sends a message to skeletal muscle present in the esophagus through efferent nerves which causes the soft pallet to elevate, the glottis to close and the opening of the upperesophageal sphincter.
5. Food can move deeper in the esophagus/into the stomach and the back of the mouth is cleared.
The soft pallet, glottis and upper esophageal sphincter return to their original positions. Identify the integrating center in this reflex arc.

brain

New cards
30

Below is an example of the reflex arc known as the swallowing reflex.
1. After swallowing a bite of food, the food stretches the soft pallet which is in the back of the
mouth.
2. These physical changes caused by food hitting the soft pallet triggers mechanoreceptors
(receptors sensitive to changes in length).
3. Afferent sensory neurons send signals to the central brain.
4. The brain sends a message to skeletal muscle present in the esophagus through efferent nerves which causes the soft pallet to elevate, the glottis to close and the opening of the upper esophageal sphincter.
5. Food can move deeper in the esophagus/into the stomach and the back of the mouth is cleared.
The soft pallet, glottis and upper esophageal sphincter return to their original positions. Identify the efferent pathway in this reflex arc.

efferent motor neurnos

New cards
31

Below is an example of the reflex arc known as the swallowing reflex.
1. After swallowing a bite of food, the food stretches the soft pallet which is in the back of the
mouth.
2. These physical changes caused by food hitting the soft pallet triggers mechanoreceptors
(receptors sensitive to changes in length).
3. Afferent sensory neurons send signals to the central brain.
4. The brain sends a message to skeletal muscle present in the esophagus through efferent nerves
which causes the soft pallet to elevate, the glottis to close and the opening of the upper
esophageal sphincter.
5. Food can move deeper in the esophagus/into the stomach and the back of the mouth is cleared.
The soft pallet, glottis and upper esophageal sphincter return to their original positions. Identify the effector in this reflex arc.

soft pallet, glottis, upper esophageal sphincter

New cards
32

Below is an example of the reflex arc known as the swallowing reflex.
1. After swallowing a bite of food, the food stretches the soft pallet which is in the back of the
mouth.
2. These physical changes caused by food hitting the soft pallet triggers mechanoreceptors
(receptors sensitive to changes in length).
3. Afferent sensory neurons send signals to the central brain.
4. The brain sends a message to skeletal muscle present in the esophagus through efferent nerves
which causes the soft pallet to elevate, the glottis to close and the opening of the upper
esophageal sphincter.
5. Food can move deeper in the esophagus/into the stomach and the back of the mouth is cleared.
The soft pallet, glottis and upper esophageal sphincter return to their original positions. Identify the response in this reflex arc.

food is moved further down esophagus & into stomach until mouth is cleared, decreasing degree of stretch of soft pallet

New cards
33

what kind of feedback is being described by the swallowing reflex? why?

negative feedback because the response opposes the stimulus

New cards
34

consider the following scenario: you are heading to the gym for your regular workout. before even beginning to exercise, you notice that your heart rate increases. identify whether these situations are examples of positive feedback, negative feeback, or a feedforward mechanism and explain why.

feedforward mechanism because the body is undergoing a change in anticipation of an event

New cards
35

consider the following scenario: you are waiting for the bus on a cold, winter day. you notice you begin to shiver & feel yourself getting a little bit warmer identify wheser this situations are positive or negative feedbark, or a feedforward mechanism and explain why.

negative feedback because the response opposes the stimulus

New cards
36

consider the following scenario: a newborn begins nursing; milk production continues until the newborn stops nursing. identify whether this situation is an example of positive or negative feedback, or a feedback mechanism and why

positive feedback because the stimulus reinforces the response

New cards
37

is the brain in the central or peripheral nervous system?

central

New cards
38

are the cranial nerves in the central or peripheral nervous system?

peripheral

New cards
39

are the peripheral nerves part of the central or peripheral nervous system?

peripheral

New cards
40

is the spinal cord part of the central or peripheral nervous system?

central

New cards
41

what is the function of the central nervous system?

recieving input signals, interpreting input info and sending output signals to the rest of the body

New cards
42

what is the major function of the peripheral nervous system?

convey sensory info to the CNS and output info from the CNS

New cards
43

what are the 2 major branches of the peripheral nervous system?

efferent & afferent division

New cards
44

what are the 3 branches of the autonomic nervous system?

sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric nervous system

New cards
45
<p>identify the nucleus in the picture. </p>

identify the nucleus in the picture.

C

New cards
46
<p>identify the cell body in the picture. </p>

identify the cell body in the picture.

D

New cards
47
<p>identify the dendrites in the picture. </p>

identify the dendrites in the picture.

A

New cards
48
<p>identify the axon in the picture. </p>

identify the axon in the picture.

B

New cards
49
<p>identify the axon terminal in the picture.</p>

identify the axon terminal in the picture.

E

New cards
50

what is the major function of the cerebrum?

regulating voluntary actions, conscious activity & processing/reception of sensory info

New cards
51

what is the major function of the brainstem?

control centers for respiration & heart rate & is a major regulator of subconscious activity & reflexes

New cards
52

what is the major function of the cerebellum?

controlling movement, posture, balance & motor learning

New cards
53

What is the major function of the hypothalamus?

major regulator of homeostasis

New cards
54

what is the major function of the thalamus?

final relay center of sensory info & plays critical role in sensory perception

New cards
55

what kind of information is conveyed through the afferent division of the peripheral nervous system?

sensory info

New cards
56

what kind of information is conveyed through the efferent division of the peripheral nervous system?

motor info

New cards
57

what are the 3 major types of senses?

somatic, visceral, & special senses

New cards
58

describe somatic senses.

senses that we are consciously aware of

New cards
59

describe visceral senses.

senses that we are not consciously aware of

New cards
60

describe special senses.

senses that are difficult to categorize as “visceral” or “somatic” (balance, hearing, vision)

New cards
61

what are the 2 major types of motor output?

somatic & visceral

New cards
62

describe somatic output.

leads to actions that we have conscious control of

New cards
63

describe visceral output.

leads to actions we have no conscious control over.

New cards
64

is a sensory neuron unipolar or multipolar?

unipolar

New cards
65

is a motor neuron unipolar or multipolar?

multipolar

New cards
66

is an interneuron unipolar or multipolar?

multipolar

New cards
67
<p>identify gray matter in the picture. </p>

identify gray matter in the picture.

I

New cards
68
<p>identify white matter in the picture. </p>

identify white matter in the picture.

E

New cards
69
<p>identify the dorsal root in the picture.</p>

identify the dorsal root in the picture.

G

New cards
70
<p>identify the ventral root in the picture. </p>

identify the ventral root in the picture.

C

New cards
71
<p>identify the dorsal horn in the picture. </p>

identify the dorsal horn in the picture.

F

New cards
72
<p>identify the dorsal root ganglion. </p>

identify the dorsal root ganglion.

H

New cards
73
<p>identify the anterior side in the picture. </p>

identify the anterior side in the picture.

B

New cards
74
<p>identify the posterior side in the picture. </p>

identify the posterior side in the picture.

A

New cards
75

what is grey matter made of?

cell bodies of neurons and synapses

New cards
76

what is the general function of grey matter?

process info/integrate info

New cards
77

what is white matter made of?

myelinated axons of neurons

New cards
78

what is the general function of white mater?

transmit signals between neurons

New cards
79

what is the difference between a neuron and a nerve?

a nerve is a single cell while a nerve is the collection of muelinated axons in the peripheral nervous system

New cards
80

what are ganglia?

collection of cell bodies and synapses

New cards
81

where are ganglia found?

peripheral nervous system

New cards
82

what type of information is conveyed through ascending tracts?

sensory info

New cards
83

what type of information is conveyed through descending tracts?

motor info

New cards
84

how many pairs of cranial nerves are there?

8

New cards
85

which parts of the body do the cranial nerves innervate?

head, neck, shoulders, arms, hands

New cards
86

how many pairs of thoracic nerves are there?

12

New cards
87

which part of the body do the thoracic nerves innervate?

chest, upper abdomen

New cards
88

how many pairs of lumbar nerves are there?

5

New cards
89

which parts of the body do the lumbar nerves innervate?

lower abdomen, hips, legs

New cards
90

how many pairs of sacral nerves are there?

5

New cards
91

what parts of the body do the sacral nerves innervate?

genitals, lower digestive tract

New cards
92

how many coccygeal nerves are there?

1

New cards
93

which parts of the body do the coccygeal nerves innervate?

skin laying above tailbone

New cards
94

given the small size of the ventral horns in the thoracic spinal cord, what might this tell us about the function of the thoracic spinal cord?

there is not a lot of motor output to thorax/upper abdomen

New cards
95
<p>identify a in the picture.</p>

identify a in the picture.

cell body

New cards
96
<p>identify b in the picture</p>

identify b in the picture

axon

New cards
97
<p>identify c in the picture.</p>

identify c in the picture.

sensory receptor

New cards
98
<p>identify d in the picture.</p>

identify d in the picture.

peripheral nervous system

New cards
99
<p>identify e in the picture.</p>

identify e in the picture.

trigger zone

New cards
100
<p>identify f in the picture.</p>

identify f in the picture.

central nervous system

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9498 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(63)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 108 people
Updated ... ago
4.4 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 90 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(4)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard100 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard57 terms
studied byStudied by 427 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard163 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard133 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard28 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)