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Burgundian lands

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1

Burgundian lands

France, Burgundy, Netherlands etc

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2

Philip the Good

Duke of Burgundy, reigned from 1419-1467, created the order of the golden fleece, hosted the Feast of the Pheasant, invited by the pope to plan a crusade that never happened.

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3

Charles the Bold

Duke of Burgundy, reigned from 1467-1477, knight of the order of the golden fleece, son of Phillip the Good.

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4

Feast of the Pheasant

1454, set by Phillip the Good, elaborate banquet that lasted for days with music and theatrics, to help gain favour for a crusade

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5

Order of the Golden Fleece

Created by Phillip the Good to celebrate his marriage, 24 knights

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6

L’Homme Armée

Popular secular song used as a setting of the Mass in the Late Middle Ages, nearly 40 recorded settings, may have been invented by Busnoys

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7

Chapel/capella music

music written for 14 singers (6 high, 3 tenor, 2 contratenors, 3 bass), Bungundian ‘chapel trend’ was inspiration for french, italian, german styles

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8

Antoine Busnoys

Burgundian composer (1400s), believed to have written 6-7 L’homme Armee masses, wrote a puzzle before each, worked in the court of Charles the Bold,

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9

Imitatio

Imitation of a model - way of paying respects to a great composer by imitating their work, or friendly competition

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10

Johannes Ockeghem

15th century composer, contemporary of Busnoys

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11

Bergerette/virelai

French ‘form fixe’, or shepherdess song

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12

Johannes Tinctoris

15th century music theorist, admirer of the style of Busnoys and Ockeghem

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13

Double mensuration canon

A form of 4-voice canon where only 2 voices are notated, the rest are derived from singing in canon. Ex: Missa Prolationum: Kyrie by Ockeghem

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14

Josquin DesPrez

Renaisance composer, known for including imitation in works

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15

Pervading Imitation

Imitation present in all voices of a composition

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16

Point of Imitation

Section in which each voice begins with the same or a similar melody; the melody is passed from one part to another.

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17

Chigi codex

Presentation manuscript

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18

Madrigal

Most important form of Italian secular music in the 16th century, evolved with invention of printing press

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19

Italian Madrigal

shift away from rigid form, emphasis on emotion, text is important, often performed by amateurs

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20

Syntax

grammar/mechanics of language, how the text is put together

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21

semantics

meaning/interpretation of text, intertextuality/rhetoric

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22

Madrigalist

composers of madrigals

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23

Musico-poetic associations

Use of imitation, reiterated pitches, melody and harmony to emphasize the text of a madrigal

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24

Word painting

using musical gestures to suggest or depict a word or idea in the text.

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25

Jacques Arcadelt

16th century composer, wrote the most famous madrigal - Il bianco e dolce cigno

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26

Petrarchan Aesthetic

16th century return to the poetic style of Petrarch, a trencento poet, uses anithesis, suites word painting

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27

Pietro Bembo

Wrote Prose della volgar lingua, on the use of the italian language in music, focused on portraying gravita (dignity) and Piacevolezza (sweetness)

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28

Gioseffo Zarlino

16th century theorist, put Bembo’s ideas into music using intervals to express grief, sadness, etc16th century theorist, put Bembo’s ideas into music using intervals to express grief, sadness, etc

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29

Zarlino’s melodic movement

harshness = natural movement, softness/sorrow = accidental movement

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30

Cipriano de Rore

Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance, active in Italy, wrote De la belle contrade d'oriente

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31

Carlo Gesualdo

16th/17th century composer known for killing his wife and her lover

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32

The Grand Tour

Rich young british men traveling Europe after their studies (side affect: bringing madrigals and italian style to england)

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33

Musica Transalpina

The first published collection of italian madrigals that have been translated into english

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34

Triumphs of Orianna

Published collection of 25 madrigals by 23 composers honoring Queen Elizabeth 1

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35

Thomas Weelkes

English composer and organist from the 16/17th centuries, wrote madrigals and masses

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36

Lute Song

genre of instrumental music from the english jacobean era

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37

Jacobean period

period of english and scottish history in which James VI of scotland inherited the british throne as James I (1603-1625)

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38

Table Book Format

a manuscript format in which the piece is on the page multiple times in different rotations so multiple people can sit at different angles and play

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39

John Dowland

‘The Unhappy Englishman’, 16/17th century composer and lutist

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40

Pavane

Dance written in duple meter, with an aabbcc form

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41

Lute tablature

Method of notation in which each string and fret has an associated letter

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42

Luis de Narvaez

Spanish composer, composed mainly for the vihuela, wrote six books for the dauphin

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43

Vihuela

Spanish equivalent of a lute, precursor to modern guitar (6 strings)

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44

Intabulation

Vocal music rearranged for instrumental orchestration

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45

Variations/Differencias on bass patterns

Melody is ornamented, bass stays the same

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46

Tielman Susato

16th century composer who wrote dance music ( “The 3rd little music book published in our Nether-Dutch language, wherein are included all types of dances, that is, basse danses, rounds, allemandes, pavanes and others, with also fifteen new galliards, very enjoyable and easy to play on all musical instruments.”)

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47

Galliard

Dance in triple meter, music is a variaiton of the pavane

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48

Printing Press

Revolutionary invention resulting in mass publication of music

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49

Petrucci

Inventor of triple impression printing, venecian with 20-year monopoly on musical printing

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50

Triple Impression Printing

printing method in which the staves were printed first, then the notes, then the words

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51

Pierre Attaignant

First to use single impression printing for music (invented by John Rastell) commercially

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52

The Reformation

Movement to reform christianity to become more accessible to the congregation (common language, anti-indulgences etc)

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53

Martin Luther

Monk and theologian responsible for sparking the reformation

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54

95 Theses

Martin Luther’s treatise on the changes he wanted to see in the Catholic church

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55

Lutheran Chorale

Verse-based (strophic), congregational, monophonic hymns

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56

English Reformation

henry the 8th divorces catherine of aragorn and the catholic church at the same time, founds anglicism to justify it

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57

Anthem

Contrapuntal choral music, similar to a latin motet

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58

Counter Reformation

Catholic reaction to loss of territory and congregation in much of europe, change in mass practices and acceptable music

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59

Council of Trent

Held from 1545-1553, redefined catholic theology and practices

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60

Palestrina

Counter-reformation composer who wrote the Pope Marcellus mass to prove that music still belonged in the church

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61

Claudio Monteverdi

one of the first opera composers, transitional figure between the renaissance and baroque periods

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62

Cruda Amarylli

a composition by Monteverdi that had unprepared dissonances, sparking controversy and debate

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63

Giovanni Artusi

strongly opposed Cruda Amarylli and Monteverdi’s musical practices

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64

Artusi overo Delle imperfezioni della moderna musica

Concerning the Imperfections of Modern Music, Artusi’s original diss track against Monteverdi

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65

Prima Prattica/First Practice

Music and contrapuntal rules are of primary importance

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66

Seconda Prattica / “Second Practice”

words are of primary importance. If words suggest breaking the rules of counterpoint, then that's OK!

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67

Il Pastor Fido

Tragicomedy written by Guarini, popular setting for madrigals, featuring Amarylli and Mirtillo

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68

Monody

Solo singing accompanied by basso continuo

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69

Basso continuo

semi-improvised bass line played by harpsichord, organ, cello, lute, and/or theorbo/chitaronne

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70

Harpsichord

a keyboard instrument in which the strings are plucked, rather than hit with a hammer

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71

Lute

Plucked string instrument with a neck and deep round back

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72

Theorbo/Chitaronne

member of the lute family, with an extended neck and second pegbox (two names)

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73

Viola da gamba

Six-stringed instrument played with a bow

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74

Figured bass

Method of notation in which the bottom note of a chord is notated and the inversion is written below, used in basso continue and counterpoint

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75

Realization of figured bass

improvising/filling in the chord tones that are missing in figured bass

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76

Le nuove musiche

New Pieces of Music and a New Way of Writing Them: a treatise by Caccini depicting the use of basso continuo and monody

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77

Spezzatura

Caccini’s performance style that emphasised unmeasured performance, solo performance, expressive dynamics and ornementation

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78

Passaggi

ornaments associated with spezzatura

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79

Melisma

passage of 16th/32nd notes, associated with spezzatura

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80

Gruppi

trills associated with spezzatura

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81

Trilli

rapid repetition of same pitch (glottal stop), associated with spezzatura

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82

Esclamazioni

attacking note then decrescendoing, associated with spezzatura

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83

Florentine Camerata

a group of italians interested in ancient greece, formed the basis of opera

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84

Members of the Florentine Camerata

Count Giovanni de’ Bardi, Girolamo Mei, Vincenzo Galilei, Giulio Caccini, Jacopo Corsi, Jacopo Peri

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85

Florentine Intermedi

dramatic musical interlude between acts of a play, independent of the play, perfomed at medici weddings

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86

Dafne

first opera, composed by Jacopo Peri, written by Rinuncinni

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87

Euridice

second opera, composed by Peri, written by Rinuncinni and Caccini

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88

Orfeo

Opera based on the story of Orpheus, written by Monteverdi

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89

Alessandro Striggio

Liberretist for Orfeo

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90

Orpheus

protagonist of greek myth in which he must travel to the underworld to reclaim his love

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91

Libretto

the text used for an opera or other musical work

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92

Librettist

the person who writes the libretto

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93

Recitative

Style of singing in opera, Blank verse poetry (no metre or rhyme in poetry), Basso continuo accompaniment

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94

Orfeo’s lament

Aria from the opera Orfeo

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95

Castrato

masculine singer with high soprano voice achieved through body modification

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96

Farinelli

Famous castrato

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97

Allesandro Moreschi

known as the last castrato (1855-1922)

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98

One-Sex System

Baroque understanding of sex and gender, men = hot and dry, women = cool and wet

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99

The Coronation of Poppea

Monteverdi’s final opera, about Nero and his lover

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100

Venetian Opera

style of opera characterised by more emphasis on formal arias; the beginning of bel canto style, and more attention to vocal elegance than to dramatic expression; less use of choral and orchestral music; complex and improbable plots; elaborate stage machinery; and short fanfarelike instrumental introductions, the prototypes of the later overture.

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