Chapter 4

studied byStudied by 7 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What are goof theories based on?

1 / 101

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

102 Terms

1

What are goof theories based on?

practical experience or experimental observations and provide practical tools

nif understood well help focus our clinical practice

nProvide us with alternate perspectives on clinical problems

New cards
2

Form and function

Both needed in order to effectively communicate

New cards
3

Function

phonology - phoneme

New cards
4

Form

articulation – speech sound

New cards
5

Why do form and function combine?

for meaningful message

New cards
6

Form and function example

final consonant deletion

New cards
7

final consonant deletion

child has speech sound form as demonstrated in other positions of words, but does not have fxn because does not realize where sound should be used

New cards
8

Distinctive feature theory

any property that separates a subset of elements from a group

New cards
9

Example of Distinctive feature theory

Color of door on similar house

New cards
10

What’s the basic unit of Distinctive feature theory?

feature (not phoneme)

New cards
11

Features cannot be broken into what?

smaller units

New cards
12

Features binary (+ or -)

ìMay be based on acoustic or articulatory properties

ìMay be based on function in syllable

New cards
13

Acoustic

strident, voice

New cards
14

Articulatory

high, back, lateral, or coronal

New cards
15

Syllable function

consonantal, vocalic

New cards
16

ì/t/

ìIs a consonant so + consonantal

ìIs not a vowel so – vocalic

ìIs not voiced so – voice

New cards
17

ì/d/

ìIs a consonant so + consonantal

ìIs not a vowel so – vocalic

ìIs voiced so + voice

New cards
18

Where do Proponents believe that phonemes are stored?

in brain as“bundles of features”

New cards
19

What’s it called if they allow us to distinguish between phonemes?

distinctive

New cards
20

Is distinctive feature theory used clinically?

not used a great deal clinically

New cards
21

What happens if features ARE the basic unit?

children will learn features, errors may be based on unlearned features rather than unlearned sounds

New cards
22

Why do all features need to be listed in distinctive feature theory?

for given phoneme, even those that have nothing to do with particular phoneme (disadvantage)

New cards
23

What happens If we look at feature rather than phoneme?

errors that look unique at phoneme level may have common basis

New cards
24

What sounds should Child’s errors be on?

all + strident sounds or + continuant sounds

New cards
25

What may you miss in distinctive feature theory?

phonetic information

New cards
26

10Generative phonology

Prior to early 1950s, focus of phonological theories was on “surface form” (what speaker actually produced)

New cards
27

What is underlying form in generative phonology?

“purely theoretical concept that is thought to represent a mental reality behind the way people use language”

New cards
28

Underlying form

ìMore than just what is physically produced

ìSpeaker’s cognitive ability

New cards
29

In generative phonology, what two levels of sound representation are considered?

Phonological representation and Phonetic representation

New cards
30

Phonological representation

ì(abstract underlying form)

ìDetails of how phonemes are stored in brain

New cards
31

Phonetic representation

ì(surface form)

ìWhat is actually produced by the speech organs

New cards
32

Naturalness designates what two sound aspects?

ìThe relative simplicity of a sound production

ìIts high frequency of occurrence in languages

New cards
33

What are more natural sounds?

those that are considered easier to produce and occur in many languages

New cards
34

Naturalness vs. markedness

Sounds are easy to produce and common across languages

Consonants and stops easy to produce

New cards
35

Why are Natural sounds considered unmarked?

it is assumed that children learn them first

New cards
36

What’s relatively more difficult for marked sounds?

to produce and are found less frequently in languages

New cards
37

What do Natural and unmarked have in common?

they are the same thing

New cards
38

What’s used when formulating phonological rules?

distinctive features are used

New cards
39

What do Sounds that share features form?

natural sound classes

New cards
40

Generative phonology also says we can predict what?

normal development

New cards
41

Marked sounds less common in what?

languages of world, which may mean they are more difficult to learn

New cards
42

What sounds should children learn first?

unmarked sounds

New cards
43

ìChomsky and Halle (1968) believed there were four features that could do what?

distinguish between phonemes

New cards
44

Sonorant

open vocal tract

New cards
45

Sonorants include

vowels, glides, nasals and liquids

New cards
46

Consonantal

sounds produced with high degree of oral obstruction

New cards
47

Consonantals include

stops, fricatives, affricates, liquids and nasals

New cards
48

Vocalic

sounds produced with low degree of oral obstruction

New cards
49

Vocalic includes

Vowels and liquids

New cards
50

ìCavity features

ìRelated to place of articulation

New cards
51

Cavity features include

nasal, lateral, low, high, etc.

New cards
52

ìManner of articulation features

ìHow sound is produced

New cards
53

ìManner of articulation features includes

continuant, delayed released, tense

New cards
54

ìSource features

§Subglottal air pressure, voicing and stridency

New cards
55

What are consonants characterized by complete/narrow constriction between articulators, hindering expiratory airstream?

obstruents

New cards
56

obstruents include

stops, fricatives and affricates

New cards
57

ìVoiceless obstruents are more natural than what?

voiced obstruents

New cards
58

Obstruents are more natural than what?

sonorants

New cards
59

ìStops are more natural than what?

fricatives

New cards
60

ìFricatives are more natural than what?

affricates

New cards
61

ìLow-front vowels are the most what?

natural vowels

New cards
62

ìTense vowels are more what?

natural than lax vowels

New cards
63

ìAnterior consonants are more natural than what?

non-anterior consonants

New cards
64

Why has Generative phonology not yet resulted in clinically useful tools such as tests to be used with phonologically disordered children?

ìProbably because analysis is quite complex and highly individualized

New cards
65

What is Natural phonology?

is a natural theory…in that it presents language as a natural reflection of the needs, capacities, and world of its users, rather than as a merely conventional institution. (Donegan and Stampe, 1979)

New cards
66

What does the natural phonology theory assume?

that child is constantly revising the phonological system to become more like that of adult

New cards
67

Limitation

ìoccurs when differences between child’s system and adult’s system become limited to only specific sounds or sequences

New cards
68

Ordering

ìWhen substitutions that appear unordered and random become more organized – again the child is trying to match the adult phonological system

New cards
69

Suppression

ìthe abolishment of one or more phonological processes as children move from innate speech patterns to adult production

New cards
70

ìAssumes that child’s underlying representations are just like an adul’ts – they just have difficulty with what?

the motor production of the surface form.

New cards
71

ìAs childs abilities improve, they slowly reduce what?

the amount of simplification

New cards
72

What is the Stampe’s theory?

assumes that the child passively suppresses these phonological process

New cards
73

nB-W breaks phonological processes into 3 categories:

1.Syllable structure processes

2.Substitution processes

3.Assimilatory processes

New cards
74

1.Syllable structure processes

are sound changes that affect the structure of the syllable

New cards
75

2.Substitution processes

one sound class is substituted for another

New cards
76

3.Assimilatory processes

sound becomes similar to or is influenced by another

New cards
77

Syllable Structure Processes

ìCluster reduction

ìReduplication

ìWeak syllable deletion

ìFinal consonant deletion

New cards
78

Substitution Processes

ìConsonant cluster substitution

ìFronting

ìLabialization

ìAlveolarization

New cards
79

ìConsonant cluster substitution

stwit for street – also can be referred to as gliding

New cards
80

ìFronting

velar ti for key; palatal fronting su for shoe

New cards
81

ìLabialization

replacement of non-labial sound with labial one fum for thumb

New cards
82

ìAlveolarization

range of nonalveolar sounds, mostly interdental and labiodental, into alveolars sum for thumb

New cards
83

Substitution Processes- Manner

nStopping

nAffrication

nDeaffrication

nDenasalization

nGliding of liquids/fricatives

nVowelization

nDerhotacization

ìVoicing

ìDevoicing

New cards
84

nStopping

substituting stops for fricatives to for sue OR affricates – dus for juice

New cards
85

nAffrication

replacement of fricatives by homorganic affricates – chew for shoe (homorganic is same place)

New cards
86

nDeaffrication

production of affricates as homorganic fricatives shoe for chew

New cards
87

nDenasalization

replacement of nasals by homorganic stops

New cards
88

nGliding of liquids/fricatives

replacement of liquids or fricatives by glides – wed for red or ju for shoe

New cards
89

nVowelization

replacement of syllabic liquids and nasals, mostly l and n by vowels – tabo for table

New cards
90

nDerhotacization

the loss of r coloring in central vowels with r coloring  (er) – bird, ladder

New cards
91

ìVoicing

voicing an unvoiced sound

New cards
92

ìDevoicing

devoicing a voiced sound – David becomes Davit

New cards
93

Assimilatory Processes

ìLabial assimilation

ìVelar assimilation

ìNasal assimilation

ìLiquid assimilation

New cards
94

ìLabial assimilation

change of non-labial into labial sound under influence of another labial sound – fwing for swing

New cards
95

ìVelar assimilation

change of non-velar into velar under influence… gog for dog

New cards
96

ìNasal assimilation

influence of nasal on non-nasal sound – money for bunny

New cards
97

ìLiquid assimilation

influence…  lellow for yellow

New cards
98

Theories up to now have been considered what?

“linear phonologies”

New cards
99

“linear phonologies”

ìAssume that speech is produced in a sequential fashion

ìAssume that all features and sounds are equal

New cards
100

Main difference between linear and nonlinear

ì(also called multi-linear) phonologies is that nonlinear types attempt to look at larger linguistic segments

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9498 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(63)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 108 people
Updated ... ago
4.4 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 90 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(4)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard100 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard57 terms
studied byStudied by 427 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard163 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard133 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard28 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)