biology exam #2

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acid rain

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118 Terms

1

acid rain

-damages tissues (can cause respitory issues)

-reduces soil nutrients

-changes communities

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2

most of the waters Earth is

marine

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3

most of the earths freshwater is

found in glaciers

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4

a region of earth most unlikely to have a freshwater shortage are

in the boreal forests of Canada & Russia

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5

future water stress is most likely to strike

the Middle East or Asia

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6

What part of the water cycle has the longest residence time

water storage in oceans

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7

what is a water table

the current point of water level in an unconfined aquifer

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8

what is the movement of water from vapor to liquid water in the atmosphere occurs through a process called

condensation

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9

the largest use of water is for

agricultural use

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10

water use for agriculture is

irrigation, animal feed, & processing food

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11

on average water for domestic use is about ________% of the total water withdrawal & use

10%

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12

What type of pollutant is most likely to cause human health issues?

bacteria, viruses, & pathogens from untreated sewage

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13

water pollutants that are likely to cause significant ecosystem disruption

-dumping leaf litter into a lake or pond

-fertilizer entering a water body

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14

What are point source pollutants

-paper mill effluent

-underground storage tank

-sewage treatment facility

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15

Manure seepage from a manure pike in a private horse farm would be

could point source if the manure is regulated & monitored otherwise nonpoint source

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16

dead zones result from

cultural eutrophication

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17

thermal pollution is a concern because

it lowers the dissolved oxygen of the water

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18

water borne infectious disease is sourced from

human sewage

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19

nonpoint source water pollution might include

goose & gull poop on the beaches that increase fecal coliform bacteria levels

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20

factors that negatively affect water quality & can be considered “water pollution” have

-negative impacts on human health

-disrupt ecosystem

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21

this type of water pollution tends to mostly disrupt ecosystem function

thermal pollution

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22

this type of water pollution may have an impact on human health

radio active releases

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23

these pollutants are likely to cause high biochemical oxygen demand

-runoff of lawn nutrients into local waterway

-sewage overflow

-town leaf compost dumped local bay

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24

what is a nonpoint air pollutant

volatile organic compounds released from oil based paint

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25

example of a point source pollutant

-emissions from the tailpipe of your car

-mercury released from a coal-burning power plant

-volatile organic compounds released from a manufacturing plant

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26

incomplete burning of wood

carbon monoxide

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27

burning of gasoline

nitrogen oxide

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28

coal buring

sulfur dioxide

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29

house hold appliances

volatile organic compounds

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30

dust in the wind

speculate particulate matter

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31

what can lead to acid rain

-burning coal

-burning gasoline

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32

what comprises SMOG

-nitrogen oxide

-sulfur dioxide

-VOC

-dust & sand

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33

what can cause increase asthma

VOC

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34

what causes the ozone hole in the stratosphere

CFC

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35

name two major gases released from burning gasoline in your car

carbon monoxide & nitrogen oxide

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36

primary pollutants that result from burning coal

carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, & nitrogen oxide

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37

what are two primary gases of SMOG? secondary?

-primary: nitrogen oxide & VOCS

-secondary: heat & sunlight

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38

what is otherwise known as airborne dusts, sand, & grit

Smog

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39

name three gases that can cause respiratory illness

sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, VOCS, & SPMs

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40

clean air act (1970) reduced this to almost zero when banned as a gasoline additive

banned lead in gasoline

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41

released from paints, resins, solvents, & escape when you fill your car with gasoline

VOCS (volatile organic compounds)

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42

fugitive, odorless, colorless gas in your home

carbon monoxide

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43

destroys atmospheric (stratosphere) ozone

chlorine

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44

develops the lower atmospheric (troposphere) ozone layer

CFCs (chloroflurocarbons)

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45

in Atlanta 1996 the Olympic committee reduced automobile emissions in the city by reducing

nitrogen oxide

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46

if you want to reduce the secondary pollutant of Smog or ground-level ozone you have to reduce the primary pollutants of

-VOCS→ industry, AC, & consumer products

-Nitrogen Oxide→ fertilizers, gas, or coal

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47

if you want to reduce the secondary pollutant of acid rain you have to reduce the primary pollutant of

-nitrogen oxide→ fertilizers, gas, coal

-sulfur dioxide→ power plants & smelting metals

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48

what is one way that the Clean Air Act of 1990 reauthorized Clean Air Act of 1970

the air standards increased

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49

Why is groundwater so difficult to protect?

can be unknowingly polluted, overdrawn, saltwater intrusion etc.

-landfills, septic tanks etc.

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50

How do we protect groundwater?

keeping pollutants to a minimum

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51

Safe drinking water act of 1974

established to protect the quality of drinking water in the U.S.; created provisions to protect underground aquifers

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52

what does the safe drinking water act of 1974 regulate

bacteria, barium, nitrates, pesticides, mercury

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53

safe drinking act of 1972

made the water swimmable & fishable

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54

What is air composed of ?

78% N2, 21% O2, 0.04% CO, 0-4% water vapor, & other trace gases

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55

the 5 atmospheric levels from lowest to highest

troposphere

stratosphere

mesosphere

thermosphere

exosphere

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56

what is the difference between primary & secondary pollutants?

primary= harmful when released

secondary= harmful when they combine with other in the air

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57

air pollution

the contamination of air by the discharge of harmful substances→ can cause respiratory distress

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58

what are major contributors to acid rain?

sulfur dioxide & nitrogen oxide

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59

what % of the earth’s water is fresh

3.6%

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60

where is earth’s freshwater found

groundwater, glaciers, & surface water

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61

What problems can the lack of freshwater cause?

limited availability of drinking water (dependent on where you live)

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62

percipitation

any liquid that falls back to earth

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63

condensation

conversion of a gas to liquid

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64

evaporation

when a liquid turns into a gas

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65

inflitration

the soil’s ability to allow movement through the soil profile; movement of water down into the soil

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66

overdraw

when more water is pumped from the ground than is available

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67

run off

the draining away of water from the surface of an area of land, building, road etc.

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68

recharge rates

how frequently the water is replenished

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69

water table falling

in summer months water is lower, when it gets lower, there is a chance of subsidence

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70

subsidence

when humans over-exploit underground water supplies until the land above collapses

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71

saltwater intrusion

movement of saltwater into freshwater aquifers which can lead to quality degradation of ground water

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72

contamination

when unwanted things enter the waterway

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73

percolate

filter gradually through a porous surface or substance

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74

water cycle

processes by which water circulates between the oceans, atmosphere, & land'; involves precipitation→ drainage → & return to the atmosphere through evaporation & transpiration

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75

evotranspirations

the process by which water is transferred land from the land to the atmosphere by evaporation

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76

watershed

an area of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas

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77

infectious agents

are organisms capable of producing infection or infectious diseases

-bacteria, fungi, viruses& parasites

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78

how are infectious agents removed from water?

treated water, removing sources of waste from drinking water

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79

causes of infectious agents in drinking water

human & animal waste

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80

oxygen-demanding waste

oxidize in the receiving body of water with the consumption of dissolved oxygen

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81

what are the causes of oxygen-demanding waste

food & waste residue in water

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82

thermal pollution

excessive heat

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83

causes of thermal pollution

water cooling of electric power plant

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84

effects of thermal pollution

with rapid temperature changes, aquatic animals are more susceptible to disease

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85

solutions of thermal pollution

settling ponds

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86

organic chemicals

any chemical composition including hydrogen, carbon or a derivative of it

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87

causes of organic chemicals

agricultural use, fuel consumption, agricultural run off, industrial discharges

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88

inorganic chemicals

a chemical compound that lacks carbon

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89

inorganic chemical causes

combustion of fossil fuels, metal processing etc.

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90

sedimentation

the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained & come to rest against a barrier

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91

sedimentation causes

when dirt or other material enter the waterway

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92

what is a dead zone

a place or period in which nothing happens or no life exists

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93

where is a dead zone

in the Gulf of Mexico→ caused by run off of fertilizers & pesticides containing nitrogen

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94

water scarcity & stress

using water at a greater rate than the recharge rate…. leads to the degradation of the natural temperature of water

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95

where is water stress prominent

are predicted to become more common & the number of nations that lack the availability of freshwater is increasing

places in northern africa, asia, western erupoe, & the U.S.

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96

solutions to water stress & scarcity

resides on the knowledge of water & the rate of recharge equal to withdrawal

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97

water consumption globally 70:20:

70%=agriculture

20%=industry

10%other

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98

how does the U.S. compare to other countries globally

the U.S. withdraws 20-40% of their total available water while Canada only withdraws about 10%

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99

How can we try to increase the water supply?

we can increase water supply by building underground storage & reservoirs, & creating water transfer schemes

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100

what is your watershed?

02852

Pettasquamscutt Watershed

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