BRAIN BEE

studied byStudied by 2 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Acetylcholine (ACh)

1 / 160

Tags and Description

Neuroscience

161 Terms

1

Acetylcholine (ACh)

A critical neurotransmitter that controls functions such as memory, attention, sleep, heart rate, and muscular activity

New cards
2

action potential

An electrical charge that travels along the axon to the neuron's terminal, where it triggers the release of a neurotransmitter. This occurs when a neuron is activated and temporarily reverses the electrical state of its interior membrane from negative to positive.

New cards
3

Adenosine

A neurochemical that inhibits wakefulness, serving the purpose of slowing down cellular activity and diminishing arousal. This neurochemical levels decrease during sleep.

New cards
4

Adrenal Medulla

An endocrine organ that secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine in concert with the activation of the sympathetic nervous system; for example, in response to stress.

New cards
5

Adrenal Cortex

An endocrine organ that secretes steroid hormones for metabolic functions; for example, in response to stress.

New cards
6

Agonist

1.) A neurotransmitter, drug, or other molecule that stimulates receptors to produce a desired reaction. 2.) A muscle that moves a joint in an intended direction.

New cards
7

Alzheimer's Disease

A major cause of dementia in the elderly, this neurodegenerative disorder is characterized by the death of neurons in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and other brain regions. The earliest symptoms of the disease include forgetfulness; disorientation as to time or place; and difficulty with concentration, calculation, language, and judgment. In the final stages, individuals are incapable of self-care and may be bedridden.

New cards
8

New cards
9

Too much Beta Amyloid-neuron's connection block-neuron death

New cards
10

Amino Acid Transmitters

The most prevalent neurotransmitters in the brain, these include glutamate and aspartate, which have excitatory actions on nerve cells, and glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which have inhibitory actions on nerve cells.

New cards
11

New cards
12

Glutamate-turn on the brain

New cards
13

GABA-turn off the brain

New cards
14

Amygdala

A structure in the forebrain that is an important component of the limbic system and plays a central role in emotional learning, particularly within the context of fear.

New cards
15

New cards
16

most important: fear

New cards
17

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

This disease causes motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord to disintegrate, resulting in loss of control of voluntary muscle movements such as walking.

New cards
18

New cards
19

Lack of stimulation-disuse of muscle

New cards
20

Androgens

Sex steroid hormones, including testosterone, found in higher levels in males than females. They are responsible for male sexual maturation.

New cards
21

Antagonist

  1. Drug or other chemical that blocks receptors. Inhibit the effects of agonists

New cards
22

New cards
23
  1. A muscle that moves a joint in opposition to an intended direction

New cards
24

Aphasia

Disturbance in language comprehension or production, often as a result of a stroke.

New cards
25

New cards
26

Nonfluent-Good input, bad output (damage to frontal lobe)

New cards
27

Fluent-Good output, fairly bad input (damage to left temporal lobe)

New cards
28

Word deafness-can't here anything (damage to the superior temporal lobe

New cards
29

Apoptosis

Programmed Cell Death

New cards
30

New cards
31

This thing is activated if a neuron loses its battle with other neurons to receive life-sustaining chemical signals called trophic factors.

New cards
32

Auditory Nerve

A bundle of nerve fibers extending from the cochlea of the ear to the brain that contains two branches: the cochlear nerve, which transmits sound information, and the vestibular nerve, which relays information related to balance.

New cards
33

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

A condition characterized by excessively inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive behaviors.

New cards
34

New cards
35

Reduction of catecholamine-weakened prefrontal lobe-less attention

New cards
36

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

A condition characterized by impaired social skills; verbal and nonverbal communication difficulties; and narrow, obsessive interests or repetitive behaviors.

New cards
37

New cards
38

Cause: dysregulation of the immune system & Abnormal and accelerated growth of the brain between 1 and 2 years old.

New cards
39

Autonomic Nervous System

A part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for regulating the activity of internal organs. It includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

New cards
40

Axon

The fiberlike extension of a neuron by which it sends information to target cells

New cards
41

Basal Ganglia

Structures located deep in the brain that play an important role in the initiation of movements. These clusters of neurons include the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Cell death in the substantia nigra contributes to Parkinson's disease.

New cards
42

Bipolar Disorder

Previously known as manic-depressive illness, this disorder is characterized by episodes of deep depression and manic highs. The depressive episodes are similar to those experienced by people with depression. Symptoms of mania include increased energy, decreased need for sleep, a marked interest in goal-directed activities, and poor judgement.

New cards
43

Brainstem

The major route by which the forebrain sends information to and receives information from the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. This thing controls among other things, respiration and the regulation of heart rhythms.

New cards
44

Broca's Area

The brain region located in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere that is important for the production of speech

New cards
45

Catecholamines

The neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which are active in both the brain and the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. These three molecules have certain structural similarities and are part of a larger class of neurotransmitters known as monoamines.

New cards
46

Cell Body

The part a neuron that contains the nucleus

New cards
47

Cerebrum

The largest part of the brain, associated with higher-order functioning including control of voluntary behavior, e.g. Thinking, planning, perceiving, understanding language.

New cards
48

Cerebellum

A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills. It is considered to control the coordination of movement by making connections to the pons, medulla, spinal cord, and thalamus.

New cards
49

Cerebral Cortex

A sheet of tissue covering the outermost layer of cerebrum, four lobes.

New cards
50

Cerebrospinal Fluid

A liquid found within the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord.

New cards
51

Circadian Rhythm

A cycle of behavior or physiological change lasting approximately 24 hours.

New cards
52

Cochlea

A snail-shaped, fluid filled organ of the inner ear responsible for converting sound into electrical potentials to produce an auditory sensation.

New cards
53

Cognition

The process or processes by which an organism gains knowledge or becomes aware of events or objects in its environment and uses that knowledge for comprehension and problem-solving.

New cards
54

Cone

A primary receptor cell for vision located in the retina. It is sensitive to color and is used primarily for daytime vision.

New cards
55

Corpus Callosum

The large bundle of nerve fibers linking the left and right cerebral hemispheres.

New cards
56

Cortisol

A hormone manufactured by the adrenal cortex. In humans, this hormone is secreted in the greatest quantities before dawn, readying the body for the activities of the coming day.

New cards
57

Cranial Nerve

A nerve that carries sensory and motor output for the head and neck region. There are 12 cranial nerves.

New cards
58

Declarative Memory

The ability to learn and consciously remember everyday facts and events.

New cards
59

Depression

A psychiatric disorder characterized by sadness, hopelessness, pessimism, loss of interest in life, reduced emotional wellbeing, and abnormalities in sleep, appetite, and energy level.

New cards
60

Dendrite

A treelike extension of the neuron cell body. This thing is the primary site for receiving and integrating information from other neurons

New cards
61

Dopamine

A catecholamine neurotransmitter present in three circuits of the brain: one that regulates movement; a second thought to be important for cognition and emotion; and a third that regulates the endocrine system. Deficits of this neurotransmitter in the motor circuit are associated with Parkinson's disease. Abnormalities in the second circuit have been implicated in schizophrenia

New cards
62

Down Syndrome

A condition that typically occurs when, at the time of conception, an extra copy of chromosome 21 is present in the egg. This genetic anomaly is associated with physical and developmental characteristics, including mild to moderate intellectual disabilities; low muscle tone; and an increased risk of congenital heart defects, respiratory problems, and digestive tract obstruction.

New cards
63

Drug Addiction

Loss of control over drug intake or compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, despite adverse consequences.

New cards
64

Endocannabinoids

Lipid-derived messengers sometimes referred to as the brain's marijuana. These messengers control the release of neurotransmitters, usually by inhibiting them, and can affect the immune system and other cellular parameters. Endocannabinoids also play an important role in the control of behaviors.

New cards
65

Electroencephalography (EEG)

A technology used to record electrical activity of the human brain in response to a variety of stimuli and activities.

New cards
66

Endocrine Gland

An organ that secretes a hormone directly into the bloodstream to regulate cellular activity of certain other organs.

New cards
67

Endorphins

Neurotransmitters produced in the brain that generate cellular and behavioral effects like those of morphine

New cards
68

Epilepsy

A disorder characterized by repeated seizures, which are caused by abnormal excitation of large groups of neurons in various brain regions. This disorder can be treated with many types of anticonvulsant medications.

New cards
69

Epinephrine

A hormone, released by the adrenal medulla and specialized sites in the brain. During times of stress, epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is quickly released into the bloodstream. It then serves to put the body into a general state of arousal, which enables it to cope with the challenge.

New cards
70

Estrogens

A group of sex hormones found more abundantly in females than males. They are responsible for female sexual maturation and other functions.

New cards
71

Excitation

A change in the electrical state of a neuron that is associated with an enhanced probability of action potentials.

New cards
72

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

A hormone released by the pituitary gland that stimulates the production of sperm in the male and growth of the follicle (which produces the egg) in the female.

New cards
73

Forebrain

The largest part of the brain, which includes the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. This part of the brain is credited with the highest intellectual functions.

New cards
74

Fovea

The centermost part of the eye located in the center of the retina and contains only cone photoreceptors.

New cards
75

Frontal Lobe

One of the four subdivisions of the cerebral cortex. This lobe has a role in controlling movement and in the planning and coordinating of behavior.

New cards
76

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A technology that uses magnetic fields to detect activity in the brain by monitoring blood flow

New cards
77

New cards
78

3D影响非常清晰,test blood flow and blood oxygen 比较实时,但是有延迟

New cards
79

Gamma-aminobutyric Acid (GABA)

An amino acid transmitter in the brain whose primary function is to inhibit the firing of nerve cells.

New cards
80

Glia

Specialized cells that nourish and support neurons.

New cards
81

Glucocorticoids

Hormones that produce an array of effects in response to stress. Some of the actions of these hormones help mediate the stress response, while other, slower actions counteract the primary response to stress and help re-establish homeostasis.

New cards
82

Glutamate

An amino acid neurotransmitter that acts to excite neurons. Glutamate stimulates N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). AMPA receptors have been implicated in activities ranging from learning and memory to development and specification of nerve contacts in developing animals. Stimulation of NMDA receptors may promote beneficial changes, whereas overstimulation may be a cause of nerve cell damage or death in neurological trauma and stroke.

New cards
83

Gonad

Primary sex gland: testis in the male and ovary in the female.

New cards
84

Gray Matter

Portions of the brain that are gray in color because they are composed mainly of neural cell bodies, rather than myelinated nerve fibers, which are white.

New cards
85

Growth Cone

A distinctive structure at the growing end of most axons. It is the site where new material is added to the axon.

New cards
86

Hair Cells

Sensory receptors in the cochlea that convert mechanical vibrations to electrical signals; they in turn excite the 30,000 fibers of the auditory nerve that carry the signals to the brainstem.

New cards
87

Hindbrain

The most posterior part of the brain comprises the pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum.

New cards
88

Hippocampus

A seahorse-shaped structure located within the brain and considered an important part of the limbic system. One of the most studied areas of the brain, it is involved in learning, memory, and emotion.

New cards
89

Homeostasis

The normal equilibrium of body function.

New cards
90

Hormones

Chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands to regulate the activity of target cells. They play a role in sexual development, calcium and bone metabolism, growth, and many other activities

New cards
91

Huntington's Disease

A genetic disorder characterized by involuntary jerking movements of the limbs, torso, and facial muscles, often accompanied by mood swings, depression, irritability, slurred speech, and clumsiness

New cards
92

New cards
93

Basal ganglia出问题,过度dopamine

New cards
94

Hypothalamus

A complex brain structure composed of many nuclei with various functions, including regulating the activities of internal organs, monitoring information from the autonomic nervous system, controlling the pituitary gland, and regulating sleep and appetite.

New cards
95

Interneuron

A neuron that exclusively signals another neuron

New cards
96

Inhibition

A synaptic message that prevents a recipient neuron from firing.

New cards
97

Ions

Electrically charged atoms or molecules.

New cards
98

Ion Channels

Selectively permeable water-filled channels that pass through the cell membrane and allow ions or other small molecules to enter or leave the cell.

New cards
99

Long-Term Memory

The final phase of memory, in which information storage may last from hours to a lifetime.

New cards
100

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

A technique that uses magnetic fields to create a high-quality, three-dimensional image of organs and structures inside the body. This technology is noninvasive and does not expose the body to X-rays or other radiation.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 103 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 244 people
Updated ... ago
4.2 Stars(11)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 59945 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(248)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard254 terms
studied byStudied by 44 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard167 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard113 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard188 terms
studied byStudied by 30 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)