bio exam 4

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elements

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116 Terms

1

elements

substances that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions

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the periodic table

lists all chemical elements ordered by atomic number

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trace elements

-14

-minerals present in living tissues in small amounts

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subatomic particles

-what atoms are made out of

-protons, neutrons, electrons

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protons

small positively charged particle, in nucleu

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neutrons

no electrical charge, in nucleus

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electrons

single unit negative charge, in nucleus

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isotopes

-atoms have same number of protons and electrons

-different number of neutrons

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ions

-an atom or molecule that has positive or negative electrical charge

-has gained or lost one or more electrons

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10

chemical bonds

attraction between two atoms with opposite charges that share an outer shell of electrons

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ionic bonds

transfer of electrons

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covalent bonds

sharing of electrons

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13

nonpolar

equal sharing of electrons

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polar

unequal sharing of electrons

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single bond

single pair of electrons

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double bond

two atoms share two pairs of electrons

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ionic bonds

transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another

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hydrogen bond

positive hydrogen atom from one polar molecule and negative atom in another molecule create this

important in structure of water

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19

organic compounds

molecules that contain carbon bonded to other elements

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classes of organic compounds

-carbs

-lipids

-proteins

-nucleic acids

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functional groups

sets of atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton

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22

macromolecules

- polymers joined together with monomers through dehydration synthesis reactions

- large molecules that can have complex structures

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polymers

-living cells in macromolecules

-large molecules made by joining many monomers

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monomer

building block of polymer

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hydrolysis reactions

polymers broken down into the monomers that make them up

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dehydration synthesis reaction

monomers linked together to form larger polymers through this chemical reaction

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metabolism

the sum total of all chemical reactions that take place in your body

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lipid

-diverse group of organic compounds

-fatty, waxy, or oily compounds

-hydrophobic

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hydrophobic

doesn’t mix with water

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phospholipid bilayers

made by stacking two layers of a molecules called a phospholipid

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phospholipid

contains a phosphate group in its hydrophilic (water-loving) head and two hydrophobic tails

-protects cell against environment

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cholesterol

-lipid

-important component of animal cell membranes

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triglyceride

-molecule of dietary fats

-one molecule of glycerol joined to three fatty acid molecules

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steroids

-lipids that contain four fused chemical rings made from carbon

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fatty acid

-building blocks of the fat in our bodies and the food we eat

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anabolic steroids

synthetic variants of testosterone that mimics its effects

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saturated fats

-maximum number of hydrogens along with fatty acid tail

-plant oils, coconut oils

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unsaturated fats

-one or more double bonds in fatty acid tail, fewer number of hydrogens

-avocadoes, olives, nuts, seeds

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hydrogenation

manufacturing process that turns unsaturated fat into solid

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trans fat

-type of unsaturated fat that contains an unusual bond but does NOT occur naturally

-unhealthy

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healthy fats

-omega 3 fatty acids (reduces risk of heart disease)

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proteins

-most diverse large biologic molecule

-unique chemical and 3 dimensional shape to perform specific function

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amino acid

all proteins consist of them

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peptide bond

amino acids joined through dehydration synthesis to form

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polypeptide

long chain of amino acids

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anatomy

the study of the structure of an organism's body parts

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structural hierarchy

Runs from cells to tissues to organs to organ systems to the whole organism

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physiology

The study of functions of those parts

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organ

Two or more types of tissue work together to perform specific function

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organ system

Teams of organs that perform important body function

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organism

Depends on coordination of all organ systems for survival

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tissue

Integrated group of similar cells to perform function

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digestive system

Long tube and series of organs that secrete digestive chemicals into it

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Alimentary canal

Long tube or gut that is divided along digestive organs

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oral cavity

mouth

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pharynx

Intersection of mouth, esophagus and trachea that leads to lungs

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epiglottis

covers entrance of trachea

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esophagus

Muscular tube that connects pharynx to stomach

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gastric juice

Acidic fluid in stomach that contains enzymes (pepsin)

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small intestine

primary site of nutrient absorption

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large intestine

any remaining water absorbed into bloodstream

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accessory organs

Specific digestive chemicals into alimentary canal via ducts

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peristalsis

propels food through gut

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4 processes of food

-ingestion

-digestion

-absorption

-elimination

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mechanical digestion

physical process of breaking down food (chewing)

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chemical digestion

use of enzymes to perform hydrolsis

-chemical reactions that use water to break bonds with large molecules

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essential nutrients

materials that body cannot make itself

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minerals

Inorganic chemical elements required to maintain health

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vitamins

Organic nutrient required to diet in very small amounts

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essential fatty acids

must be obtained from food (salmon)

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essential amino acids

must be obtained from food- plant proteins

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obesity

an inappropriately high body mass index

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BMI

a ratio of weight to height

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gastric bypass

most common weight loss surgery, stomach reduced to small pouch

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malnutrition

caused by a diet that lacks sufficient calories or essential nutrients

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anorexia nervosa

self starvation due to a fear of gaining weight

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bulimia

pattern of binge eating followed by vomiting through abuse of laxatives or excessive exercise

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carbohydrates

Molecules constructed from one or more monosaccharides (simple sugars)

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monosaccharides

-simple sugars

-building blocks of carbs

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isomers

one or more compounds with the same chemical formula but different arrangements of atoms

-guclose, fructose

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disaccharide

double sugar formed by joining two monosaccharides through a dehydration synthesis reaction

-ex. lactose, maltose, sucrose

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polysaccharide

-complex carb made by joining many monosaccharides together in a long chain

-ex. starch, cellulose, glycogen, chitlin

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plasma membrane

-Thin flexible oily sheet forms boundary between living cells and its surroundings

-Regulates passage of materials into and out of cell

-Facilitates communication between cells

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extracellular fluid

liquid environment outside the cell

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cytoplasm

interior of cell

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cytosol

-watery liquid in cytoplasm

-various organelles and dissolved molecules

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diffusion

The movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

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osmosis

-Diffusion of water

-Water flows from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration

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facilitated diffusion

-substances cannot cross membrane on their own

-use specific transport proteins embedded in the membrane

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active transport

-moving a substance against its concentration gradient from where it is less concentrated to somewhere more concentrated

-requires energy

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endocytosis

Transport of large substances into the cell

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exocytosis

Export of large quantities of materials from the cell

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chloroplasts

-organelles of photosynthesis

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photosynthesis

Energy of sunlight is captured and used to create molecules of sugar which power cellular activities

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mitochondria

Provide energy to nearly all eukaryotic cells

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cellular respiration

Uses oxygen to harvest chemical energy in molecules of ATP

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ATP

-main energy source for cells

-molecules perform functions of life

-Molecule composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups

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100

aerobic respiration

A chemical process in which oxygen is used to make energy from carbohydrates (sugars)

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