Psych Exam 2

studied byStudied by 0 people
get a hint

Piaget's discipline name

1 / 222

Tags and Description

223 Terms


Piaget's discipline name

Genetic Epistemology

New cards

Genetic Epistemology

origin of knowledge

New cards

example of assimilation

a baby sees a "big black dog" but it is actually a bear

New cards

Accommodation Cognitive Change

changing cognitive structures based on an interaction with the environment. It is when you encounter something new that changes your view on the world

New cards

Example of Accommodation Cognitive change

baby sees bear and thinks its a big black dog but then bear stands on two legs and baby realizes dogs don't do that letting the baby know its a bear

New cards

Equilibrium Cognitive Change

  • dirves development

  • balance between assimilation and accommodation

  • someone can change their view but they don't always need to

New cards

Cognitive Structures: Schemes

  • thought that underlie actions

  • merge together and get more organized and complicated

  • eventually turn into logical reasoning around mid childhood

New cards

Cognitive Structures: Operations

  • reversible

  • gets more complex

  • becomes abstract

New cards

What world view does Piaget have?

Organismic world view

New cards

Organismic world View

  • believe in goal of balance, equilibrium, drives development

  • development is active

  • there are qualitative changes

  • development is predictable

New cards

Sensorimotor: Reflexive schemes take place when

birth- 6 weeks

New cards

Sensorimotor: Reflexive Schemes

  • Newborn reflexes basis of sensorimotor intelligence

  • think with their eyes, ears, hands

New cards

In what stage of Sensorimotor do first learned adaptations appear?

Primary Circular Reactions

New cards

Sensorimotor: Primary Circular Reactions take place when

1-4 months

New cards

In what stage of Sensorimotor do reflexes become voluntary actions

Primary Circular Reactions stage

New cards

In what stage of Sensorimotor are circular reactions primary ?

Primary Circular Reactions

New cards

In what stage of Sensorimotor are circular reactions body focused?

Primary Circular Reactions

New cards

Assimilation Cognitive Change

you take things based on your existing cognitive structures and see the environment based on what you already know about the world

New cards

In what stage of Sensorimotor are circular reactions secondary?

Secondary Circular reactions

New cards

Sensorimotor: Secondary Circular reaction takes place when?

4-10 months

New cards

What stage to babies manipulate objects in the environment ?

Secondary Circular Reactions

New cards

What stage do toys with different noises and textures become engaging for babies?

Secondary Circular Reactions

New cards

What Stage do circular reactions become more complex?

Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions

New cards

When does coordination of secondary circular reaction take place?

8-12 months

New cards

What stage does the child have a combination of schemes and solving problems

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

New cards

What stage does a child understand that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

New cards

When does tertiary circular reactions happen?

12-18 months

New cards

In what stage does a child repeat actions over and over with variations

Tertiary circular reaction

New cards

When does mental representation stage happen

18 months to 2 years

New cards

At what stage do internal images of absent objects and past events occur (displaced reference)

Mental Representation

New cards

When can a toddler solve problems through symbolic meaning rather than trial and error?

Mental Representation

New cards

What stage permit make-believe play?

Mental Representation

New cards

When do sensorimotor periods of cognitive development occur?

birth to 2 years

New cards

When does the preoperational period of cognitive development occur

2-7 years

New cards

What characteristics are the main focus of Preoperational Cognitive Development?

Centration, Irreversibility, Egocentrism, Intuitive Reasoning

New cards

Centration (piaget)

when a child focuses on one aspect of a problem

New cards

Irreversibility (Piaget)

children have irreversibility in their thinking

New cards

Egocentrism (piaget)

Children grow up thinking they're the center of attention because at home they are

New cards

Intuitive Reasoning (piaget)

  • make-believe games

  • Animism

  • Language development takes off here

New cards

Animism Example

baby sees a baby doll in the washing machine and cries because it thinks the doll will get hurt

New cards

When does Concrete Operational Cognitive Development happen?

7-11 years

New cards

Concrete Operational Cognitive Development

  • Conservation develops

  • coordination of spatial systems develops

  • decentration

  • reversibility in thinking

  • seriation

  • classification

New cards

When does formal operational cognitive development begin

11 years and on

New cards

Formal Operational Cognitive Development

  • Hypothetical Reasonings

  • they start thinking like scientists

  • propositional reasoning

  • reflective thinking

  • limitations

New cards

Reflective thinking (formal operational Cognitive development)

A child thinks back to something that happened and how to make it happen again or to avoid it

New cards

Limitations (Formal Operational Cognitive Development)

  • A child becomes the star of their own movie

  • children become self conscious and worry about what others think about them

New cards

What does Vygotsky focus on when it comes to development?

Focuses on interactions with others and sees knowledge as a negotiated human construct

New cards

Who is contextual and who is organismic (piaget and Vygotsky)

Contextual - vygotsky organismic - piaget

New cards

Vygotsky thinks thought is ________________ by parents, teachers, siblings etc


New cards

What are the four levels of development? (Vygotsky)

Phylogenic, Historical, Ontogenetic, Micro genesis

New cards

Phylogenic Development

  • How did language come about

  • How did we evolve as humans

  • whether competition or cooperation drove development

New cards

Historical Development

  • How tools are developed and how they change the way we think and feel about the world

  • Example his how cellphones change the way we think and communicate

New cards

Oncogenic Development

Individual Development

New cards

Micro Genesis development

Development of a skill

New cards

Zone of Proximal Development

  • this is where development happens

  • learning and schooling should be set up to allow ZPD interactions to happen so example is working in smaller groups

New cards


  • supported help; help but not too much

  • example is when a kid is learning to write and you put your hand over there to guide them

New cards

Miller's experiment on language

  • Did an experiment with english speaking kids and with chinese speaking kids. Chinese kids were able to count higher than english speaking because of how the language is

New cards

__________ Work is encouraged because it enhances learning for everyone


New cards


Sounds of language like boom

New cards

Morphemes (Strange example)

strange is root word one morpheme stranger is two morphemes strangers is there

New cards

When does baby cooing occur

2-4 months

New cards

How does cooing start out then progress

starts out as just sounds but then becomes more social

New cards

when does baby Babbling occur

4+ months and it is breath vowel sounds

New cards

Baby Jargon example

  • video of baby and dad talking about a football game where the baby talks in his own language and the father pretends to understand

New cards

When does a babies first word generally appear

12-13 months

New cards

Holophrase (baby talk)

A sentence worth of meaning into one single word Example: dog can mean look at the dog

New cards

A babies first word is normally a ...


New cards

How early and how late can a baby talk

as early as 9 months and as late as 17 months (more than 17 months is concerning)

New cards

When do two word utterances occur

18-24 months

New cards

When do babies begin speaking in normal sentences?

3 years +

New cards

By the first time a babies first word appears, how many other words do they understand?

about 100

New cards


when parents speak more animated. They are repetitive and have a higher pitch voice and louder

New cards

Overextension form of talking

taking a word and using it over extensively

  • for example using dog for any animal that walks on four legs

New cards

Underextension form of talking

only using the word dog to describe your dog and no other dog

New cards

Overregulation form of talking

kids start changing the rules of language once they understand it.

New cards

Example of Overregulation form of talking

a kid uses the word ran but then changes the rules and uses runned cause they know -ed us past tense

New cards

Chomsky's belief

We become biologically prepared to accept the structure of language

New cards

Who believed we came with Language Acquisition Device (LAD)


New cards

The Lennerberg Hypothesis

  • we have a critical period of language development between infancy and puberty which is when language develops most easily

  • broad period and children can't learn outside of this critical period

New cards

The Wug Experiment

  • Scientist came up with nonsense words that the kids have never heard before

  • showed a little bird and called it a wug then showed multiple little birds and the kids called it wugs

New cards

What did the wug experiment show?

Showed that language isn't simply imitation

New cards

What form of communication appears earlier than first words?

Sign language would appear at around 8 months because it provided real life connections to the word the kid was signing.

New cards

Koko the ape

  • ape with the largest sign vocabulary

  • was in playboy magazine

  • used sign language to communicate, mainly to deceive and insult people

New cards

Characteristics of an Easy Child

  • very predictable

  • adaptable

  • Doesn't mind change

  • high threshold

  • cheerful mood

New cards

Characteristics of a Difficult Child

  • high motor activity

  • rhythmicity is unpredictable (never know when their hungry, sleepy, etc.)

  • cranky

  • cry a lot

  • short attention span

New cards

Characteristics of a slow-to-warm-up child

  • takes long to get used to things

  • low motor activity

  • basically the middle of a difficult and easy child

New cards

The Goodness-of-fit model

  • developed by Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess

  • it's important if your babies personality fits with yours

New cards

Freud on Attachment

  • believed babies were the oral stage of development

  • babies felt provided for by whoever fed them

New cards

Importance of Touch experiment

  • monkey's were isolated and some weren't

  • it was noticed that those who were isolated began biting their fingers and toes or attacking other monkeys when put together

  • those given pretend mothers developed better

New cards

What is Kangaroo Care?

  • premature babies are normally placed in isolations but kangaroo care is where the parents hold their babies instead which was proven to help development

New cards

Bowlby's Ethological Theory

  • Preattachment phase

  • attachment in the making phase

  • clear-cut attachment phase

  • formation and reciprocal relationships

New cards

When is the Preattachment Phase?

Birth to 6 weeks

New cards

What happens during the preattachment phase

  • babies aren't too attached when they're born which is why bowlby believes it is important for mothers to be very responsive so that these babies develop the trust

  • doesn't agree with watson because watson says no attention

  • agrees with erikson's trust vs mistrust

New cards

When does the attachment in the making phase take place?

6 weeks to 6-8 months

New cards

What is the Attachment in the Making phase?

  • babies begin to recognize their family members and begin to develop recognizable patterns

  • they are generally happy and show less stranger anxiety

New cards

When does the Clear-cut attachment phase occur?

6-8 months to 18-24 months

New cards

What is the clear-cut attachment phase?

  • babies seek proximity to their family and their parents

  • begin to show separation distress

  • show stranger anxiety especially in new environments

  • try to understand the world by checking in with their parents

New cards

When does the formation and reciprocal relationships phase happen?

18-24 months and on

New cards

What is the formation and reciprocal relationship phase?

  • this is when babies develop more autonomy and separate themselves from the environment more

  • they do things for themselves but know the parent will be there when needed

  • reduction in separation and stranger anxiety because they know the parent is coming back so they don't get as upset

New cards

Spitz: "Failure to Thrive"

  • two sets of children: one where they received care but didn't know from who and others who were raised by their mothers in prison

  • those raised in prison developed better because they got to experience the relationship with their caretaker

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 84 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 40 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 106 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard55 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)