Psych Exam 2

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Piaget's discipline name

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1

Piaget's discipline name

Genetic Epistemology

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Genetic Epistemology

origin of knowledge

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example of assimilation

a baby sees a "big black dog" but it is actually a bear

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4

Accommodation Cognitive Change

changing cognitive structures based on an interaction with the environment. It is when you encounter something new that changes your view on the world

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5

Example of Accommodation Cognitive change

baby sees bear and thinks its a big black dog but then bear stands on two legs and baby realizes dogs don't do that letting the baby know its a bear

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6

Equilibrium Cognitive Change

  • dirves development

  • balance between assimilation and accommodation

  • someone can change their view but they don't always need to

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7

Cognitive Structures: Schemes

  • thought that underlie actions

  • merge together and get more organized and complicated

  • eventually turn into logical reasoning around mid childhood

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8

Cognitive Structures: Operations

  • reversible

  • gets more complex

  • becomes abstract

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9

What world view does Piaget have?

Organismic world view

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Organismic world View

  • believe in goal of balance, equilibrium, drives development

  • development is active

  • there are qualitative changes

  • development is predictable

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11

Sensorimotor: Reflexive schemes take place when

birth- 6 weeks

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Sensorimotor: Reflexive Schemes

  • Newborn reflexes basis of sensorimotor intelligence

  • think with their eyes, ears, hands

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13

In what stage of Sensorimotor do first learned adaptations appear?

Primary Circular Reactions

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14

Sensorimotor: Primary Circular Reactions take place when

1-4 months

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15

In what stage of Sensorimotor do reflexes become voluntary actions

Primary Circular Reactions stage

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In what stage of Sensorimotor are circular reactions primary ?

Primary Circular Reactions

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17

In what stage of Sensorimotor are circular reactions body focused?

Primary Circular Reactions

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18

Assimilation Cognitive Change

you take things based on your existing cognitive structures and see the environment based on what you already know about the world

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In what stage of Sensorimotor are circular reactions secondary?

Secondary Circular reactions

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20

Sensorimotor: Secondary Circular reaction takes place when?

4-10 months

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21

What stage to babies manipulate objects in the environment ?

Secondary Circular Reactions

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22

What stage do toys with different noises and textures become engaging for babies?

Secondary Circular Reactions

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23

What Stage do circular reactions become more complex?

Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions

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24

When does coordination of secondary circular reaction take place?

8-12 months

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25

What stage does the child have a combination of schemes and solving problems

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

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26

What stage does a child understand that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

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27

When does tertiary circular reactions happen?

12-18 months

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28

In what stage does a child repeat actions over and over with variations

Tertiary circular reaction

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29

When does mental representation stage happen

18 months to 2 years

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30

At what stage do internal images of absent objects and past events occur (displaced reference)

Mental Representation

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31

When can a toddler solve problems through symbolic meaning rather than trial and error?

Mental Representation

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32

What stage permit make-believe play?

Mental Representation

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33

When do sensorimotor periods of cognitive development occur?

birth to 2 years

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34

When does the preoperational period of cognitive development occur

2-7 years

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35

What characteristics are the main focus of Preoperational Cognitive Development?

Centration, Irreversibility, Egocentrism, Intuitive Reasoning

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36

Centration (piaget)

when a child focuses on one aspect of a problem

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Irreversibility (Piaget)

children have irreversibility in their thinking

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Egocentrism (piaget)

Children grow up thinking they're the center of attention because at home they are

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39

Intuitive Reasoning (piaget)

  • make-believe games

  • Animism

  • Language development takes off here

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40

Animism Example

baby sees a baby doll in the washing machine and cries because it thinks the doll will get hurt

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41

When does Concrete Operational Cognitive Development happen?

7-11 years

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Concrete Operational Cognitive Development

  • Conservation develops

  • coordination of spatial systems develops

  • decentration

  • reversibility in thinking

  • seriation

  • classification

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43

When does formal operational cognitive development begin

11 years and on

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44

Formal Operational Cognitive Development

  • Hypothetical Reasonings

  • they start thinking like scientists

  • propositional reasoning

  • reflective thinking

  • limitations

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Reflective thinking (formal operational Cognitive development)

A child thinks back to something that happened and how to make it happen again or to avoid it

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Limitations (Formal Operational Cognitive Development)

  • A child becomes the star of their own movie

  • children become self conscious and worry about what others think about them

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47

What does Vygotsky focus on when it comes to development?

Focuses on interactions with others and sees knowledge as a negotiated human construct

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48

Who is contextual and who is organismic (piaget and Vygotsky)

Contextual - vygotsky organismic - piaget

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49

Vygotsky thinks thought is ________________ by parents, teachers, siblings etc

co-constructed

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50

What are the four levels of development? (Vygotsky)

Phylogenic, Historical, Ontogenetic, Micro genesis

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51

Phylogenic Development

  • How did language come about

  • How did we evolve as humans

  • whether competition or cooperation drove development

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Historical Development

  • How tools are developed and how they change the way we think and feel about the world

  • Example his how cellphones change the way we think and communicate

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Oncogenic Development

Individual Development

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54

Micro Genesis development

Development of a skill

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55

Zone of Proximal Development

  • this is where development happens

  • learning and schooling should be set up to allow ZPD interactions to happen so example is working in smaller groups

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scaffolding

  • supported help; help but not too much

  • example is when a kid is learning to write and you put your hand over there to guide them

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Miller's experiment on language

  • Did an experiment with english speaking kids and with chinese speaking kids. Chinese kids were able to count higher than english speaking because of how the language is

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__________ Work is encouraged because it enhances learning for everyone

group

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59

Phonemes

Sounds of language like boom

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60

Morphemes (Strange example)

strange is root word one morpheme stranger is two morphemes strangers is there

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61

When does baby cooing occur

2-4 months

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How does cooing start out then progress

starts out as just sounds but then becomes more social

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63

when does baby Babbling occur

4+ months and it is breath vowel sounds

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64

Baby Jargon example

  • video of baby and dad talking about a football game where the baby talks in his own language and the father pretends to understand

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65

When does a babies first word generally appear

12-13 months

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66

Holophrase (baby talk)

A sentence worth of meaning into one single word Example: dog can mean look at the dog

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67

A babies first word is normally a ...

noun

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68

How early and how late can a baby talk

as early as 9 months and as late as 17 months (more than 17 months is concerning)

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69

When do two word utterances occur

18-24 months

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70

When do babies begin speaking in normal sentences?

3 years +

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71

By the first time a babies first word appears, how many other words do they understand?

about 100

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72

Parentese

when parents speak more animated. They are repetitive and have a higher pitch voice and louder

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73

Overextension form of talking

taking a word and using it over extensively

  • for example using dog for any animal that walks on four legs

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74

Underextension form of talking

only using the word dog to describe your dog and no other dog

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Overregulation form of talking

kids start changing the rules of language once they understand it.

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Example of Overregulation form of talking

a kid uses the word ran but then changes the rules and uses runned cause they know -ed us past tense

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77

Chomsky's belief

We become biologically prepared to accept the structure of language

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78

Who believed we came with Language Acquisition Device (LAD)

Chomsky

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79

The Lennerberg Hypothesis

  • we have a critical period of language development between infancy and puberty which is when language develops most easily

  • broad period and children can't learn outside of this critical period

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80

The Wug Experiment

  • Scientist came up with nonsense words that the kids have never heard before

  • showed a little bird and called it a wug then showed multiple little birds and the kids called it wugs

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81

What did the wug experiment show?

Showed that language isn't simply imitation

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82

What form of communication appears earlier than first words?

Sign language would appear at around 8 months because it provided real life connections to the word the kid was signing.

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83

Koko the ape

  • ape with the largest sign vocabulary

  • was in playboy magazine

  • used sign language to communicate, mainly to deceive and insult people

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84

Characteristics of an Easy Child

  • very predictable

  • adaptable

  • Doesn't mind change

  • high threshold

  • cheerful mood

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85

Characteristics of a Difficult Child

  • high motor activity

  • rhythmicity is unpredictable (never know when their hungry, sleepy, etc.)

  • cranky

  • cry a lot

  • short attention span

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86

Characteristics of a slow-to-warm-up child

  • takes long to get used to things

  • low motor activity

  • basically the middle of a difficult and easy child

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87

The Goodness-of-fit model

  • developed by Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess

  • it's important if your babies personality fits with yours

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88

Freud on Attachment

  • believed babies were the oral stage of development

  • babies felt provided for by whoever fed them

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89

Importance of Touch experiment

  • monkey's were isolated and some weren't

  • it was noticed that those who were isolated began biting their fingers and toes or attacking other monkeys when put together

  • those given pretend mothers developed better

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90

What is Kangaroo Care?

  • premature babies are normally placed in isolations but kangaroo care is where the parents hold their babies instead which was proven to help development

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91

Bowlby's Ethological Theory

  • Preattachment phase

  • attachment in the making phase

  • clear-cut attachment phase

  • formation and reciprocal relationships

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92

When is the Preattachment Phase?

Birth to 6 weeks

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93

What happens during the preattachment phase

  • babies aren't too attached when they're born which is why bowlby believes it is important for mothers to be very responsive so that these babies develop the trust

  • doesn't agree with watson because watson says no attention

  • agrees with erikson's trust vs mistrust

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94

When does the attachment in the making phase take place?

6 weeks to 6-8 months

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95

What is the Attachment in the Making phase?

  • babies begin to recognize their family members and begin to develop recognizable patterns

  • they are generally happy and show less stranger anxiety

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96

When does the Clear-cut attachment phase occur?

6-8 months to 18-24 months

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97

What is the clear-cut attachment phase?

  • babies seek proximity to their family and their parents

  • begin to show separation distress

  • show stranger anxiety especially in new environments

  • try to understand the world by checking in with their parents

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98

When does the formation and reciprocal relationships phase happen?

18-24 months and on

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99

What is the formation and reciprocal relationship phase?

  • this is when babies develop more autonomy and separate themselves from the environment more

  • they do things for themselves but know the parent will be there when needed

  • reduction in separation and stranger anxiety because they know the parent is coming back so they don't get as upset

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100

Spitz: "Failure to Thrive"

  • two sets of children: one where they received care but didn't know from who and others who were raised by their mothers in prison

  • those raised in prison developed better because they got to experience the relationship with their caretaker

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