FSN 375 Chemical Hazards

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how does the FDA define a chemical hazard?

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1

how does the FDA define a chemical hazard?

chemical hazards, including radiological hazards, substances such as pesticide and drug residues, natural toxins, decomposition, unapproved food or color additives, and good allergens

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2

how can chemical hazards be introduced?

unintentionally or intentionally introduced for economic game

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3

what are the 4 types of chemical hazards in foods?

inherent toxins, natural and environment contaminants, process and storage-derived contaminants, deliberately added contaminants

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4

what are inherent toxins?

chemicals that are regular constituents of the food

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5

how can inherent toxins be increased?

as a response to stress

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6

what are 5 inherent toxins?

lectins, glycoalkaloids, enzyme inhibitors, cyanogenic glycosides, allergens

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7

what macronutrient are lectins?

proteins

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8

what do lectins exhibit? what does this cause?

high binding affinity for carbohydrates -> impairs protein digestion and cause malabsorption of other nutrients (go through GI tract instead of being absorbed)

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9

what symptoms do lectins cause?

diarrhea, leaky gut (cause perforations in intestine)

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10

what foods contain lectins?

soybeans, lentils, peas, peanuts, tomato skin, eggplants

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11

how do you inactivate lectins?

lectins are thermolabile (thermal inactive); inactivated by heat

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12

when are glycoalkaloids produced?

as a natural plant defense (when potatoes turn green/sprout, glycoalkaloids are produced)

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13

what do symptoms do large amounts of glycoalkaloids cause?

abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, fever, hallucination, paralysis, convulsions, death

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14

how do glycoalkaloids taste?

bitter

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15

are glycoalkaloids heat stable?

yes

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16

what are increased levels of glycoalkaloids a result of?

stress factors during growth, post harvest due to handling, light

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17

what foods have glycoalkaloids?

potatoes, eggplants, berries

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18

true or false: enzyme inhibitors are toxic

false, enzyme inhibitors themselves are not toxic

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19

what important role do enzyme inhibitors have?

protein digestion (proteases)

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20

what does the isolation of enzyme inhibitors cause?

prevents break down of proteins

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21

what enzyme inhibitor is most commonly and widely studied?

trypsin inhibitor (trypsin -> skin irritation)

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22

what processes cause enzyme inhibitors to go away?

cooking, fermentation, precipitation, washing, filtration

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23

what foods are cyanogenic glycosides found?

cassava, bitter almonds, stone fruit kernels, apple seeds, mango pit

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24

what is a cyanogenic glycoside?

sugar molecule linked to a cyanide group

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25

why is cyanide deadly?

prevents body's ability to use oxygen

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26

what process results in the release of cyanide?

enzymatic hydrolysis (crushing, digestion)

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27

how do you prepare cassava so that it's no longer dangerous?

leaching, washing, boiling, uncovered fermentation (let the cyanogenic glycosides evaporate out)

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28

symptoms of cyanogenic glycosides

acute renal failure, cardiac pulmonary arrest

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29

what are allergens?

proteins that trigger an immune response

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30

symptoms of allergens

rash to anaphylaxis to death

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31

what percentage of allergic reactions are from the big 9?

90%

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32

what does FALCPA stand for? when was it established? what agency is it under?

food allergen labeling and consumer protection act, 2004, FDA

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33

what are natural and environmental contaminants?

-contaminants that the food acquires from its surroundings during its growth (ex: nitrogen in soil) -not specifically required by the plant or animal

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34

what happens when natural and environmental contaminants are too high?

can be toxic to humans

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35

what are natural and environmental contaminants controlled by?

the environment

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36

true or false: many natural and environmental contaminants cannot be processed out

true, when in environment for too long, they can become inherent

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37

4 natural contaminants

mycotoxins, shellfish toxins, histamine, tetrodotoxin

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38

3 environmental contaminants

pesticides, dioxins/polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals

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39

where do dioxins/polychlorinated biphenyls come from? what is their main source?

-byproduct of combustion processes, cigarette smoke, industrial process -main source is from meat and milk (cattle inhale dioxin from air, dioxin becomes concentrated in their muscles)

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40

relationship between dioxins/PCBs to environment and food? are they long lasting?

-widespread in environment and found in all food -long lasting contaminants

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41

concerns with dioxins/pcbs - excessive exposure

skin disease, excessive body hair, possible mild liver damage

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42

concerns with dioxins/pcbs - high level/long term exposure

increased cancer risk

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43

concerns with dioxins/pcbs - low level/long time exposure

reproductive and developmental effects

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44

heavy metals - lead; where is it found? contaminated products? what can it lead to?

-soil, paint, pipes, leaded gas -candy, vitamins, drinking water, packaging material -behavior and learning problems, slowed growth (autism), hearing problems, headaches

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45

heavy metals - mercury; where is it found? what animals can accumulate it?what can it affect?

-naturally in the environment (ocean) and a result of pollution -shark, swordfish, king mackerel -cognitive thinking, memory, attention, language. fine motor, visual spatial skills

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46

heavy metals - arsenic; where is it found? what can it affect/lead to?

-naturally occurring in the environment (rice, fuel, soil) -skin disorders, cancer (skin, bladder, lung), intellectual development in children

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47

what are mycotoxins?

toxins produced by molds (Penicillium, Fusarium, Aspergillus (produces Alfatoxins))

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48

what foods can have mycotoxins?

nuts, dried fruits, grains, milk

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49

when are mycotoxins produced?

prior to harvest or during storage

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50

what do low vs high levels of mycotoxins cause?

-low: cancer -high: death

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51

3 mycotoxins

aflatoxin, patulin, fumonisins

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52

what is the most important factor for fungi growth?

water activity

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53

how to control mycotoxins?

understand sources of supply, growth conditions, establish specifications

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54

is heat effective against mycotoxins?

no

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55

are shellfish toxins formed by the shellfish?

no, they are the result of algae

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56

what are the 4 types of shellfish poisoning?

paralytic (PSP), neurotoxic (NSP), diarrhetic (DSP), amnesic (ASP)

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57

PSP symptoms

neurological symptoms, tingling, numbness, respiratory paralysis

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58

NSP, DSP, ASP symptoms

gastrointestinal symptoms, some neurological

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59

how to control shellfish toxins?

harvesting, avoid algae bloom

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60

true or false: shellfish toxins can be readily eliminated by heat

false

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61

when is histamine/scombrotoxin released?

released by cells in response to allergy/injury

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62

where is histamine/scombrotoxin found?

in fish as a result of bacterial growth

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63

what is histamine/scombrotoxin generally due to?

inadequate post-harvest time/temp control

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64

explain how histamine is formed

dead bacteria forms histidine decarobxylase (enzyme) and combines with histidine (protein already present) to form histamine

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65

is histamine/scombrotoxin inactivated by cooking, canning, or freezing?

no

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66

when do symptoms occur from histamine?

disease onset immediate; 30 min

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67

histamine symptoms

tingling/burning of mouth, rash, drop in blood pressure, headaches, itching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

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68

where is tetrodotoxin found?

reproductive organs, liver, intestines, skin of pufferfish/fugu

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69

how is tetrodotoxin formed?

unknown (metabolic product of host? bacteria?)

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70

mortality rate of tetrodotoxin

50% mortality, death 20 min - 8 hrs

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71

symptoms of tetrodotoxin

numbness lips/tongue, lightness/floating, nausea, vomiting, difficulty walking, paralysis, speech impairment, death, may be conscious lucid before death

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72

can tetrodotoxin be destroyed by heating?

no

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73

who regulates pesticides?

EPA (reviews data, registered/licensed, establishes tolerance/action levels)

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74

who is responsible for enforcing pesticide tolerances?

FDA/USDA

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75

how to control pesticides?

control; close working relationship between suppliers and growers, follow EPA guidelines, FDA training program for countries that produce produce for US

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76

what are process and storage-derived contaminants that result of?

high temps or prolonged storage (water activity, pH, temp of environment)

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77

4 process and storage-derived contaminants

acrylamide, furans, benzene, BPA

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78

how is acrylamide formed?

process derived, natural chemical reaction between sugar and asparagine in high heat (C6H12O6 in french fries)

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79

what is acrylamide made up of?

sugars + amino acid (asparagine)

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80

what does acrylamide cause?

cancer in animals

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81

what is acrylamide found in?

foods made from plants (potatoes, grain, coffee)

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82

where is furan used?

chemical manufacturing industries

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83

what does furan cause?

cancer in animals

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84

how do scientists think furan forms in food?

during traditional heat treatments (cooking, jarring, canning)

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85

how to lessen furans?

may evaporate when foods are heated in open containers

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86

sources of furan

forest fires, construction

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87

what is benzene?

6 ringed structure

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88

where is benzene found?

chemical released into air from automobiles, burning coal and oil, used in industrial products (dyes, detergents, some plastics)

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89

what can stimulate the formation of benzene?

time in elevated temps, light exposure during shipping, handling, storage

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90

what food is benzene found in?

beverages (drinking water is allowed 5 ppb)

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91

what can benzene cause?

cancer in humans

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92

is benzene a volatile? does it evaporate?

not a volatile; settles down because it is a heavy compound (does not dissolve/evaporate)

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93

what is bisphenol a?

industrial chemical found in hard plastic bottles and metal food cans

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94

what concern surrounds BPA?

concern about impaired development (brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infant, and young children)

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95

when was BPA banned for certain products?

banned in 2012 in baby bottles and spill proof cups

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96

deliberately added contaminants motives

financial gain, harm consumers (political motives; ex: Indian guru in the 80s gave Salmonella to other party)

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97

deliberately added contaminants - what is melamine? why was it used/what was it added in? what can it cause?

-industry synthesized chemical used in laminates, coatings, plastics; NOT naturally occurring in foods -added to infant formula in China to increase "protein" concentration since its structure is similar to amino acids -can cause crystals in urine

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98

deliberately added contaminants - cumin incident

-contaminated in 2015 with peanut shells and almond husks (grinded in a way to look like cumin, increase weight of product) -largest recall of an allergen in spice (FDA) -cumin crop expected yields to be 40-50% less -purposeful economically motivated adulteration

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99

what kind of chemical hazard was the 2011 Japan Tsunami (Fukushima) incident?

radiological chemical hazard

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100

what are 3 unavoidable poisonous or deleterious substances?

alfatoxins, paralytic shelfish toxins, mercury

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