Credit Test 2 Past Paper Questions

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Caudal mediastinum includes trachea a. true b. false

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1

Caudal mediastinum includes trachea a. true b. false

false

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2

Where is the right kidney located?

cranial, lies against the liver at the level of T13

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3

Where is the left kidney located?

L1-L3

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4

Acute bronchitis: on the radiogram we see alveolar pattern a. true b. false

false

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5

Maximal of vertebral heart score for Irish wolfhound is 11.5 a. true b. false

false

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6

Write me a lung pattern in lobar pneumona

alveolar

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7

Cranial mediastinum include silhouette of heart a. true b. false

false

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8

Negative bronchogram is typical for bronchial pattern a. true b. false

false

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9
<p>Radiographic report: pathology, status of trachea, heart, lung, etc.</p>

Radiographic report: pathology, status of trachea, heart, lung, etc.

cat, latero lateral position X ray of the thorax nice and clear radiolucent trachea big radiolucent zone between the long and the sternum which indicate many air present the lung are compressed many air radiolucent zone present in triangular shape on the dorsal caudal next to the diaphragma this is a pneumothorax

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10

Cardiomegaly: vertebral heart score is 9.8 a. true b. false

false

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11
<p>Radiographic Report</p>

Radiographic Report

Lateral projection, right side Pathology: spondylosis deformans all lumbar vertebrae, dilated stomach due to stomach torsion pushing the intestine dorsally and cranially), lots of gas in the large intestine

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12

Write me the nae of positive contrast medium for cystography

non-ionic organic iodine through catheter

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13

Dose of positive nonresportion contrast medium for digestive apparatus is 350-1000 ml/kg a. true b. false

false

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14

Barium sulfate is positive contrast medium for normograde urography a. true b. false

false

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15

Write me correct VHS for dog

8.5-10.6

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16

X-ray study: Physiological size of cat's kidney is 2 cm a. true b. false

false

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17
<p>Write me name of blue and yellow parts</p>

Write me name of blue and yellow parts

Blue: fundus Yellow: Pylorus

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18

Which is ectopic ureter and name two common types?

ureter not entering urinary bladder in trigonum, but at different site (vagina, rectum, uterus);

  • Extramural bypasses the bladder completely, and ureters enters at urethra or vagina.

  • Intramural enters the bladder at correct location, but tunnels down the wall of urethra before opening

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19

Fundus of stomach is VD position on left side of patient a. true b. false

true

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20
<p>Radiographic report</p>

Radiographic report

Lateral projection Adult dog radiolucent trachea increased radiopacity in lungs showing nodular lung patterns circular densities - metastatic reaction

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21

On 30 day pregnancy we can count the skulls on the radiograph a. true b. false

false

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22

Is radiolucent mass between the colon descendens and the vertebrae in the LL position of the patient? a. true b. false

true

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23

Types of tracheal collapse

congenital acquired extrathoracic (during inspiration) intrathoracic (during expiration)

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24

Describe the main radiological symptoms of pneumothorax on radiograph in LL position

heart is raised from the sternum gap between caudodorsal lung margin and spine increased opacity of the lungs

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25

Write the pulmonary patterns

normal alveolar interstitial (structured/nodular or unstructured) bronchial mixed (bronchointerstitial) vascular

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26

Describe radiologically the chest cavity effusion

there will be a radio-opaque area either at the ventral end of the thoracic cavity (VD) or filling the entire cavity. Borders are barely visible but there is "scalloping" of lung edges due to retraction from thoracic wall

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27

What passes through the cranial mediastinum?

lymph nodes trachea

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28

What contrast agent and what dose would you use during the examination of GIT?

Positive contrast: sciabarium per os or per rectum 12 ml/kg or iodine if there are perforations in GIT Negative contrast: 30-300 ml of air

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29

Where is physiologically located spleen on the radiograph in VD position?

caudal to the stomach, connected to left abdominal cavity

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30

Stomach of a dog is located at:

cranial abdomen

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31

What is pneumoperitoneum?

air in the peritoneum of the abdominal cavity

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32

What are the caused of pneumoperitoneum?

puncture of the peritoneum air trapped during surgery gas produced by bacterial infection

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33

What passes through the retroperitoneal space?

ureters, kidneys, vena cava caudalis, abdominal aorta, sublumbar lymph nodes, prostate gland, urinary bladder neck

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34

What is the physiological renal size?

dogs: 2.5-3x the size of L2 entire cats: 2.1-3.2 x the size of L2 neutered cats: 1.9-2.6x the size of L2

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35

What density do ureters have on the radiograph, and what do we call their point of entry into the bladder?

soft tissue (not visible) ostium ureteris on trigona vesicae

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36

What contrast medium would you use to study radiolucent foreign bodies in the urinary bladder?

nonionic organic iodine 10mg/kg BW

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37

How and where is physiologically visible the full urinary bladder on the radiograph?

extraperitoneal with caudal pointing neck. The body of the bladder will hang cranio-ventrally and be more rounded when full

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38

From which day can we diagnose pregnancy in bitches radiologically, and why?

45 ossification of foetuses begins then

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39

How is pyometra visible on LL radiograph?

Dilation of the uterine horns seen as convoluted soft tissue opacity extending cranially to the mid-abdomen and displacing the jejunal loops yet more cranially Enlargement of the uterine body is recognised as a tubular soft tissue opacity between the colon and the bladder, displacing the descending colon dorsally

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40

Mediastinum: what runs through it?

lymph nodes blood vessels trachea eosophagus vasosympathetic trunk

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41

What can we see in the caudal mediastinum?

plica vena cava oesophagus

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42

Time for barium to reach to colon a. >60 b. 60-90 c. 90+ (3-5 hours)

90+ (3-5 hours)

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43

How long should an animal be starved prior to radiogram of GIT?

12 hours, 12-24 hours as needed enema: 2-3 hours before

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44

How much sciabarium should be given for radiogram of GIT?

12 mg/kg

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45

Where is pylorus located? a. right b. middle c. left

right

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46

Location of the spleen a. ventrolumbar b. ventroabdominal c. not visible

ventroabdominal

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47

Describe the position of the caecum

VD: located to the right of the midline at the level of L3-L4

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48

What can stop contrast medium in the small intestine?

obstruction by foreign material

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49

What can improve the visibility of the small intestine?

contrast medium

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50

Causes of dilated oesophagus

vascular ring anomaly megaoesophagus foreign bodies diverticula hiatial hernia stenosis

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51

What gets stuck in the oesophagus in megaesophagus?

air, fluid, food

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52

Location of stomach: pylorus, body, fundus in VD

In VD projection: Dog: U-shaped, Cat: J-shaped. Pylorus: Right Body: Midline/left Fundus: Left

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53

Where is localisation of duodenum in VD position?

on left side (caudal to stomach, connected to left abdominal cavity)

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54

Colon descendens ventrodorsal located:

on left side; extends caudally to the left mid-dorsal abdomen

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55

Colon transversus VD location

Extends from right to left caudal to stomach

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56

Colon ascendens position in VD:

Cranially in the mid-adbomen to the right of midline

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57

We see gall bladder in regular radiogram?

NO – Because of fluid silhouette effect

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58

We see stomach in caudal part of abdominal cavity Lateral-Lateral?

No - Only if there is dislocation, tympany or dilatation

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59

What we see in Torsion?

Stomach turns and changes position, soft tissue bands across the stomach

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60

Fundus in Lateral-Lateral position is located:

Dorsally. If found ventrally there is gastric torsion.

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61

How many ml of contrast medium we use for positive contrast medium to observe GIT?

Sciabarium per os 12ml/kgContrast mediums for GIT. List

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62

Contrast mediums for GIT. List 2

  • Skiabarium 12ml/kg bw.

  • Iodine 2-3 ml/kg bw

  • Double contrast: 1ml/kg barium and inflation of air.

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63

What contrast media is used for ruptured oesophagus?

Aqueous iodine solutions should be used for perforations as they are non-toxic. Radiograph needs to be taken immediately after administration of the contrast agent. Liquid barium sulphate does not adhere well to the oesophageal lumen

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64

Describe radiologically the chest cavity effusion:

There will be a radio-opaque area either at the ventral end of the thoracic cavity (VD) or filling the entire cavity. Borders are barely visible but there is “scalloping” of lung edges due to retraction from thoracic wall

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65

Effusion in AC

Liquid in abdomen. Can be classified as transudate, exudate, blood, and urine

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66

Two positions to study abdominal cavity

  • Ventrodorsal

  • Lateral-Lateral (does not matter if left or right lateral but the view should be kept consistent in all studies)

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67

What contrast medium is used for urography?

  • Iodine

  • Negative (air, oxygen, nitrogen)

  • Positive

  • Double

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68

What passes through the retroperitoneal space?

Ureters, kidneys, vena cava caudalis, abdominal aorta, sublumbar lymph nodes, prostate gland and urinary bladder neck

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69

How and where is physiologically visible the fill uinary bladder on the radiograph

It is extraperitoneal with a caudal pointing neck. The body of the bladder will hang cranioventrally and be more rounded when full.

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70

How we count babies in radiogram?

by counting skulls

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71

How many ml of contrast medium we use for negative contrast medium?

30-300ml of air per dog

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72
<p>Radiographic report</p>

Radiographic report

Right side o Lateral o Dog (squared vertebrae) o Compression of trachea o Tracheal collapse in cervical + apertura o Diaphragm + border o In articulatio humeri arthrosis

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73
<p>Radiographic report</p>

Radiographic report

LL position o Left kidney is enlarged o Contrast medium: positive iodine through I.V catheter (urography) o We can see ureters o In retroperitoneal space only 1 trigonum o Second ureter is running behind trigonum pathology: ectopic no ending

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74
<p>Radiographic report</p>

Radiographic report

LL position Dog o Heart is enlarged cardiomegaly, because it is compressing tracheal wall o Measurements are ok o Alveolar lung pattern o See only line of bronchus negative, oedema because of heart

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75
<p>Radiographic report</p>

Radiographic report

VD, left, dog o Foreign body 9-10th thoracic vertebrae on the right side o Foreign body is rod shaped, radiopaque metal o Can’t see borders on the right side traumatic o Alveolar part o Foreign body harms lungs

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76
<p>Radiographic report</p>

Radiographic report

. LL, dog o Chest x-ray o Right side o Vertebrae are ok o Lungs increased opacity o Interstitial lung pattern o 2nd tumour metastatic

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77
<p>Radiographic report</p>

Radiographic report

Thoracic cavity o Lateral side o Trachea in good position, borders are not clear o Heart is not clearly visible o Trachea is pushing dors. In the cranial mediastinum o Lungs: I can see the vessels + structures -> free liquid in the thoracic cavity (maybe exudate, transudate or blood)

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78
<p>Radiographic report</p>

Radiographic report

Dog, LL, abdominal cavity o Abdomen disc o Uterus pyometra o Tubular mass radiopaque o Pushing colon/stomach cranially

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79
<p>Radiographic report</p>

Radiographic report

Lateral, male, abdominal cavity o Liver + spleen good, no changes o Loops of intestine have little gas, colon ascendens is ok o L- sacral min. + new bone spondylosis deformans + fusion (min.intrav.space) o Foreign body, NOT be confused with kidney

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80
<p>Radiographic report</p>

Radiographic report

VD, male, abdominal cavity o See colon and loops of small intestine o Foreign body is radioopaque, NOT be confused with kidney

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81
<p>Radiographic report</p>

Radiographic report

Lateral, dog, abdominal cavity o Colon descendes is displaced we can see faeces o Big mass, because we can see border of other organs (radiopacity of fat) o Kidneys no good position o Stomach is pushing on the diaphragm (pushed cranially) o Opacity of kidney (diff.opacity) o It is FAT LIPOMA o Big fat mass o L-S connection stenosis, decreased space

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82
<p>Radiographic report</p>

Radiographic report

Dog, LL, not clear organs o Cant see border of diaphragm o No free liquid o We can see the bronchus alveolar lung pattern

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83

Pyloric part of stomach in VD position is on left side of body a. True b. False

False

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84

in fibrosis of lung tissue: on the radiograph we see: interstitial pattern a. True b. False

True

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85

For kidney evaluation we use negative contrast material and application will be in the kidney's pelvis a. True b. False

False

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86
<p>Latero-lateral position, dog, interstitial lung pattern a. True b. False</p>

Latero-lateral position, dog, interstitial lung pattern a. True b. False

True

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87

mark the correct size of the kidneys in the breed St. Bernard dog a. 4.5-5.5 times larger than L7 b. 4.5-5.5 times larger than L2 c. 2.5-3 times larger than L7 d. 2.5-3 times larger than L2

2.5-3 times larger than L2

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88

The middle mediastinum contains the silhouette of the heart a. True b. False

True

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89

Normal time period for normograde urography radiography examination is: after application, next 1 hour after application, next 3 hours after application and 5 hours after application a. True b. False

False

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90

Cranial mediastinum include cranial lung lobe a. True b. False

False

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91

Select the correct answer: a. Latero-lateral position, dog, female, spondylosis deformans in lumbo-sacral connection, full urinary bladder b. Latero-lateral position, dog, male, spondylosis deformas in lumbo-sacral connection, radiopaque foreign body in intestine c. Latero-lateral position, dog, female, spondylosis deformans in lumbo-sacral connection, torsion of stomach d. Latero-lateral position, dog, male, spondylosis deformans in lumbo-sacral connection, abdominal effusion

Latero-lateral position, dog, male, spondylosis deformans in lumbo-sacral connection, abdominal effusion

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92
<p>Radiographic report</p>

Radiographic report

LL position Dog enlarged cardiac silhouette (cardiomegaly or pericardial effusion) alveolar lung pattern

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93

Oedema of lung has alveolar pattern: a. True b. False

True

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94

Acute bronchitis: mark me correct lung pattern a. without pattern b. bronchial c. alveolar d. intersticial

without pattern

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95
<p>Radiographic anatomy - ultrasonography - write me name of organ (red zone)</p>

Radiographic anatomy - ultrasonography - write me name of organ (red zone)

(longitudinal) small intestine

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96
<p>Select the correct answer a. latero lateral position, dog, male, pathology radiopaque mass as soft tissue in the sublumbal part - gigantic sublumbal lymph node b. laterolateral position, abdominal mass radiopacity as soft tissue in retroperitoneal space c. laterolateral position, enormously filled bladder, lumbosacral stenosis, spondylosis deformans lumbal vertebrae L2-3 d. laterolateral position, lumbosacral stenosis, spondylosis deformans L-S</p>

Select the correct answer a. latero lateral position, dog, male, pathology radiopaque mass as soft tissue in the sublumbal part - gigantic sublumbal lymph node b. laterolateral position, abdominal mass radiopacity as soft tissue in retroperitoneal space c. laterolateral position, enormously filled bladder, lumbosacral stenosis, spondylosis deformans lumbal vertebrae L2-3 d. laterolateral position, lumbosacral stenosis, spondylosis deformans L-S

laterolateral position, lumbosacral stenosis, spondylosis deformans L-S

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97

ULTRASOUND: Acoustic enhancement is artefact: produced by structures in the body which reflect or absorb nearly 100% of the ultrasound beam a. True b. False

False

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98

Radiographic report

LL position Male dog urinary bladder with negative contrast is very dorsal in comparison to normal position masses with radiopacity as soft tissue in ventral abdomen pushing the urinary bladder dorsally confirmation with ultrasound

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99

When the torsion of stomach by 180 degrees is: a. pylorus is right side of patient and dorsally b. pylorus is left side of patient and ventrally c. pylorus is right side of patient and ventrally d. pylorus is left side of patient and dorsally

pylorus is left side of patient and dorsally

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100

Write the physiological position of the cecum in the dog in VD and LL position a. VD-right side of patient LL-medially b. VD-left side of patient LL-medially c. VD-left side of patient LL-ventrally d. VD-right side of patient LL-ventrally

VD-right side of patient LL-medially

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