EXAM 3

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gastrointestinal tract

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153 Terms

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gastrointestinal tract

a continuous hollow tube extending from the mouth to the anus -Its walls are constructed by the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine -approx. 30 ft long -aka alimentary tract

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  1. ingestion

  2. digestion

  3. movement (mixing)

  4. absorption

  5. elimination

What are the 5 processes necessary to the digestion process?

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ingestion

one of the processes of digestion; the taking of food or liquid into the body via the mouth

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digestion

one of the processes of digestion; breaking down of large nutrient molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed; can be mechanical or chemical

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mechanical digestion

specific type of digestion that entails the cutting and mastication (chewing) of food; peristalsis

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chemical digestion

specific type of digestion; digestive enzymes hydrolyze macromolecules

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movement (mixing)

one of the processes of digestion; food is passes from one organ to the next via peristalsis

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absorption

one of the processes of digestion; taking in of subunit molecules by cells or membranes

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elimination

one of the processes of digestion; process of expelling substances from the body via defecation

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hard palate

bony anterior portion of the roof of the mouth

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soft palate

entirely muscular portion of the back roof of the mouth

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uvula

tissue tag hanging from soft palate

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tongue

occupies the floor of the mouth and has 4 functions

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  1. grips food

  2. repositions food between teeth

  3. mixes food with saliva

  4. movements from bolus

What are the 4 functions of the tongue?

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salivary glands

glands associated with the mouth; secretes saliva

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saliva

solution of water, mucus, salivary amylase, lysozyme, and bicarbonate; has 4 functions

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  1. cleanses the mouth

  2. dissolves food chemicals for taste

  3. moistens food & aids in compacting food into bolus

  4. contains enzymes that begin chemical breakdown of starch

What are the 4 functions of saliva?

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salivary amylase

the first enzyme to begin chemical digestion of starch

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teeth

lie in sockets in the gum-covered margins of the maxilla and mandible; contains 2 main divisions: crown & root; there are 32 total in adults

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enamel

hard material composed of calcium compounds and covers crown of tooth

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dentin

thick layer of bone-like material beneath enamel of tooth

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pulp

the inner tissue of the tooth containing blood vessels and nerves

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dental caries (cavities)

results from acids produced by bacteria metabolizing sugar

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periodontitis

inflammation of the periodontal membrane that lines tooth sockets; causes loss of bone and loosening of teeth

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pharynx

portion of the GI tract between the mouth and the esophagus -Serves as a passageway for food and also air on its way to trachea -Trachea is parallel and anterior to the esophagus

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esophagus

muscular tube for moving swallowed food from the pharynx to the stomach

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swallowing

composed of a voluntary phase and involuntary phase (reflex action) -Soft palate moves back to close off nasal passage via uvula -Epiglottis covers the glottis, which is the opening to the larynx (voice box)

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peristalsis

wavelike contractions that propel bolus along the esophagus

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sphincters

muscle that surrounds a tube to open or close by relaxing or contracting

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lower gastroesophageal sphincter

marks the entrance of esophagus to stomach -Sphincter contracts to prevent acidic contents of stomach from backing into esophagus

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heartburn

happens when lower gastroesophageal sphincter fails to open and allow food in the stomach or when it opens allowing stomach contents back into esophagus

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stomach

a muscular sac that mixes food with gastric juices to from chyme, which then enters the small intestine -1 L capacity; pH 2 -Stores food; does not absorb nutrients; empties in 2-6 hrs -Initiates digestion of proteins with enzyme pepsin -Controls the movement of food into the small intestine

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gastric juice

produced by gastric glands of stomach; includes pepsin, mucus, & HCl

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chyme

thick semi-liquid food material that passes from stomach to the small intestine

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pyloric sphincter

regulates chyme entry into the small intestine

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small intestine

long tubelike chamber of GI tract between stomach & large intestine -Contains enzymes secreted by pancreas and enters via duct in duodenum to digest carbs, fats, and proteins -Receives bile produced by the liver, stored in gallbladder & released into duodenum -About 20 ft long -Contains 3 sections: duodenum, jejunum, & ileum -Nutrients are absorbed here (villus)

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  1. duodenum

  2. jejunum

  3. ileum

What are the 3 sections of the small intestine?

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duodenum

first 10 inches of small intestine

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jejunum

2nd part of small intestine; 8 ft long

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ileum

3rd part of small intestine; 12 ft long

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villus

small fingerlike projections of the inner small intestine wall (mucosa); increases surface area of small intestine -Outer layer has cells that have microvilli (brush border) -Blood capillaries and small lymphatic capillaries (lacteal) are present

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lactose intolerance

inability to digest lactose because of an enzyme deficiency -Do not have brush border enzyme (lactase) -Symptoms include diarrhea due to fluid retention, gas, bloating, & cramps when bacteria breakdown lactose anaerobically

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  1. pancreas

  2. liver

  3. salivary glands

  4. gallbladder

What are the 4 accessory organs of the digestive tract?

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pancreas

internal organ that produces digestive enzymes; also produces hormones insulin & glucagon; accessory organ in the digestive system

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type 1 diabetes

happens when pancreas does not produce sufficient amounts of insulin (onset typically before age 15)

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type 2 diabetes

happens when pancreas does not make enough insulin or body's cells are insulin resistant (onset typically after age 40)

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pancreatic amylase

enzyme in the pancreas that digests starch to maltose

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trypsin

protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas

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lipase

fat-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas

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liver

large, dark-red internal organ; accessory organ in the digestive system and contains the following functions:

  1. DETOXIFIES blood (hepatic portal vein brings blood to liver from GI tract capillaries

  2. Stores GLUCOSE as glycogen, iron, vitamins A, D, E, K, & B12

  3. Produces PLASMA PROTEIN and UREA

  4. Produces BILE (stored in gallbladder) to emulsify fats

  5. Regulates CHOLESTEROL

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urea

primary nitrogenous waste derives from amino acid breakdown in liver

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jaundice

yellowish tint to the skin caused by abnormal bilirubin (bile pigment) in blood, indicating liver malfunction

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hepatitis

inflammation of the liver; often caused by ______ B virus

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cirrhosis

chronic irreversible injury to liver tissue; caused by alcohol or Hepatitis C virus

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large intestine

last major portion of the digestive tract; extending from the small intestine to the anus; approx. 5 ft long -Function is to absorb water -Does NOT absorb nutrients (exceptions are absorption of vitamins K and B-complex) -Includes the cecum, vermiform appendix, colon, rectum, & anus

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absorb water

What is the function of the large intestine?

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cecum

the blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine; has the vermiform appendix

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vermiform appendix

small tubular appendage that extends out from the cecum; aids in fighting infections

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colon

the major portion of the large intestine, consisting of the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon

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rectum

terminal end of the digestive tube; last 20 cm of large intestine; stores feces

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anus

outlet of the digestive tract; where defecation occurs

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skeletal system

system of protection & support -Composed of bones, cartilages, joints, & ligaments -Starts forming at about 6 weeks (embryo about 12 mm long) -206 named bones -Makes up 20% of body weight

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  1. supports body

  2. protects soft body parts

  3. produces blood cells

  4. stores minerals & fats

  5. permits flexible body movement (along with muscles)

What are the 5 main functions of the skeletal system?

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axial skeleton

forms the long axis of the body and includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column, & the ribcage

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appendicular skeleton

consists of bones of the upper and lower limbs and their girdles that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton

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cartilage

white, flexible semi-opaque connective tissue -CHONDROCYTES are the mature cell form of this -Has NO NERVES OR BLOOD VESSELS; well suited for padding joints

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ligament

band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone -Contains cells called FIBROBLASTS

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tendon

cord of fibrous tissue attaching muscle to bone -Also contains cells called FIBROBLASTS

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organic and inorganic compounds

What are the two groups of the chemical composition of bone?

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organic

components of bone that include OSTEOBLASTS, OSTEOCYTES, & OSTEOCLASTS -Bones are composed of living tissues

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inorganic

components of bone that include HYDROXYAPATITES (mineral salts) -Largely composed of calcium phosphate

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ossification

process of bone formation

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osteoblasts

bone-forming cells -Secrete the organic matrix of bone (mucopolysaccharides & collagen fibrils) -Promote the deposition of calcium salts into the matrix

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osteocytes

mature bone cells derived from osteoblasts; they maintain the structure of the bone

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osteoclasts

large cells that reabsorb or breakdown bone matrix; assist in returning CALCIUM & PHOSPHATE to the blood

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diaphysis

elongated shaft of a long bone

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medullary cavity (marrow cavity)

cavity inside shaft of long bone -Walls composed of compact bone -Filled with yellow bone marrow (stores fat)

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epiphysis

the end of a long bone attached to the shaft -Composed largely of spongey bone -Contains RED BONE MARROW; produces all types of BLOOD CELLS -Coated with cartilage

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periosteum

fibrous connective tissue covering of long bone -Contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, & nerves

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compact bone

highly organized and composed of tubular units called OSTEONS -Within osteons, osteocytes (mature bone cells) occupy small cavities (LACUNAE) -CANALICULI connect lacunae to one another and to central canal -The central canal contains small blood vessels and nerve fibers

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spongy bone

has an unorganized appearance compared to compact bone -Composed of numerous struts or thin plates (TRABECULAE) separated by uneven spaces -Spaces are often filled with RED BONE MARROW

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endochondrial ossification

bone replaces cartilaginous models of the bones

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  1. smooth

  2. cardiac

  3. skeletal

What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?

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smooth muscle

consisting of spindle-shaped, nonstriated muscle cells -Located in walls of hollow internal organs and blood vessels -SINGLE NUCLEUS in cell -INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE, slow to react, does not fatigue easily

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cardiac muscle

specialized muscle of the heart; striated; has 1-2 nuclei per cell -These cells interlock at INTERCALATED DISKS -INVOLUNTARY muscle

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skeletal muscle

composed of cylindrical multinucleate cells with obvious striations -Consists of muscles attached to the body's skeleton -VOLUNTARY muscle

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  1. support

  2. Movement of bones & other body structures

  3. Maintenance of constant body temp.

  4. Movement of fluids in the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems

  5. Protection of internal organs & stabilization of joints

What are the 5 functions of muscle?

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pairs

Muscles work in ______

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shorten

When muscles contract, they ______

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pull

Muscles can only ______

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origin

the end of a muscle attached to a stationary bone

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insertion

the end of a muscle attached to a movable bone

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antagonist

the muscle that acts opposite to the prime mover (ex: bicep vs tricep)

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sarcolemma

plasma membrane of a muscle fiber; forms the tubules of the T system -Encases hundreds of thousands of MYOFIBRILS

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T (transverse) tubules

membranous channel that extends inward toward sarcoplasmic reticulum

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sarcoplasmic reticulum

smooth endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells; surrounds myofibrils and stores calcium ions

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myofibril

rod-like bundle of contractile filaments found in muscle cells; contains a LINEAR arrangement of SARCOMERES; run the entire length of muscle fiber; composed of even smaller MYOFILAMENTS

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fascicle

a bundle of muscle fibers surrounded by connective tissue; found in SKELETAL MUSCLE

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myofiber (muscle fiber)

muscle cell

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myofilaments

smaller cells within myofibrils; contain two types: actin & myosin

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