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1

Matter

anything occupying space and having mass

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Simplest Form of Matter

debatable

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Atom

neutrons + protons + electrons [ nucleus ]

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Element

collection of atoms (same type)

different atoms have different types of atoms

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5

Example of an Element

anything on the periodic table

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Compound

combine two or more different elements by forming chemical bonds

have constant composition

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Example of a Compound

H2O

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Mixture

combination of two or more elements or compounds

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Homogeneous Mixture

combination is the same throughout

called solutions, not visibly distinguishable parts

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Example of Homogeneous Mixture

air

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Heterogeneous Mixture

composition is not uniform

has visibly distinguishable parts

separate mixtures by physical change

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Example of Heterogeneous Mixture

trail mix

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Physical Change

doesn't change formula of compounds/elements; usually changes the state (gas⇆liquid⇆solid)

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Example of Physical Change

melting

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Chemical Change

Separating (breakdown) compounds into elements by making or breaking chemical bonds

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Example of Chemical Change

burning

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Hypothesis

Possible explanation for an observation

Test hypothesis through experiment

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Theory

Set of hypothesis that explains some natural phenomenon

often called models

explains why

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Law

one statement summarizing what happens

can be a mathematical equation

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20

Example of a law

Ideal Gas Law

PV=nRT

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Qualitative Observation

general observations not requiring a number

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Example of qualitative data

Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, reactivity, state, etc.

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Quantitative Observation

observation requiring a number and unit

a measurement

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example of quantitative observation

How long, heavy, etc

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Scientific Method

observations, hypothesis, experiment, theory

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exa

10^18 (E)

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peta

10^15 (P)

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tera

10^12 (T)

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giga

10^9 (G)

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mega

10^6 (M)

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kilo

10^3 (k)

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hecto

10^2 (h)

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deka

10^1 (da)

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deci

10^-1 (d)

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centi

10^-2 (c)

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mili

10^-3 (m)

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micro

10^-6 (miu)

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nano

10^-9 (n)

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pico

10^-12 (p)

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femto

10^-15 (f)

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atto

10^-18 (a)

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uncertainty

all measurements have uncertainty

assume +/- 1 in last digit

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precision

closeness of a measurement to each other

reproducibility

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accuracy

closeness of a measurement to accepter, or true value

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SigFig rules for counting

nonzero integers and captive zeros - significant

zeros on left - not significant

zeros on right - significant only if theres a decimal

exact numbers - infinite significant figures

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SigFig rules for addition/subtraction

same number of decimal places as number with fewest

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SigFig rules for multiplication & division

number with fewest SigFigs limits SigFigs in answer

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SigFigs when using constants

don't allow them to limit amount of SigFigs

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Dimensional Analysis Set Up

(original unit A/1)(unit B/unit A)(unit C/unit B)

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% error

abs(true result-experimental)/true result x 100

related to accuracy

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Dalton's Atomic Theory

each element is made up of atoms

Atoms of the same element are alike, atoms of different elements are different

Compounds are formed when atoms of 2 or more elements combine. (a given compound always have the same composition)

Law of Conservation of Mass: during chemical reaction, atoms are rearranged, not created or destroyed

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Atomic Structure: JJ Thomson

cathose ray rube experiments

beam deflected by magnet (particles are charged)

current moves a paddlewheel (particles have mass)

Conclusion: a negatively charged particle is one of the fundamental particles of the atom

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Atomic Structure: Rutherford

gold foil and alpha particle experiment

most went straight through (atom mostly empty space)

some were deflected slightly (protons in nucleus (+) repel the alpha particles (+))

a few bounced back (very dense nucleus)

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nuclues makes up the _*, electons make up the _*

mass; volume

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electrons

negative charge 9.10939 x 10^-31 kg

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protons

positive charge 1.67265 x 10^-27 kg

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neutrons

no charge 1.67495 x 10^-27 kg

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Structure of the atom

mostly empty space

tiny nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons

nucleus contains most of mass (n+p)

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Atomic Number (Z)

number of protons (unique) number of electrons (when neutral)

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Mass Number (A)

Number of protons + neutrons

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Isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

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Cations

electrons are lost (metals)

Roman numeral indicates charge

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Anions

electrons are gained (nonmetals)

root of element name + ide suffix

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Periodic Table

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Ionic Bonds

cations/anions simplest= metal + nonmetal metal in a compound gaining or lossing electrons

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Covalent Bonds

nonmetal + nonmetal sharing electrons

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H2O

water (neutral)

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NH3

Ammonia (neutral)

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C6H12O6

glucose (neutral)

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HClO4

perchloric acid (neutral)

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Hg2

Mercury (I) 2+

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NH4+

Ammonium +1

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NO2

Nitrite -1

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NO3

Nitrate -1

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SO3

Sulfite -2

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SO4

Sulfate -2

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HSO4

hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) -1

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OH

Hydroxide -1

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CN

Cyanide -1

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PO4

Phosphate -3

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HPO4

Hydrogen Phosphate -2

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H2PO4

dihydrogen phosphate -1

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NCS or SCN

Thiocyanate -1

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CO3

Carbonate -2

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HCO3

hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) -1

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ClO or OCl

Hypochlorite -1

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ClO2

Chlorite -1

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ClO3

Chlorate -1

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ClO4

Perchlorate -1

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C2H3O2

Acetate -1

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MnO4

Permanganate -1

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Cr2O7

Dichromate -2

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CrO4

Chromate -2

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O2

Peroxide -2

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C2O4

Oxalate -2

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S2O3 2-

Thiosulfate -2

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HF

hydrofluoric acid

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HCl

hydrochloric acid

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HBr

hydrobromic acid

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100

HI

hydroiodic acid

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