UArrk Anatomy lec exam 2

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synarthosis

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105 Terms

1

synarthosis

immovable joint

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amphiarthosis

slightly movable joint

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diarthrosis

freely movable joint

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Synarthosis-sutures

joints found only in the skull bones are interlocked together immovable

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synarthrosis-gomphosis

joints between teeth and jaw bones periodontal ligaments of the teeth immovable

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synarthrosis-synchondrosis

joint within epipysis of bone immovable binds diaphysis to the epiphysis

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synarthrosis-synostosis

joint between two fused bones fusion of the three coxal bones immovable

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subgroups of the synarthrosis joints

sutures, gomphosis, synchondrosis, synostosis

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subgroups of the amphiarthroses joints

syndesmosis, symphysis

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10

amphiarthroses-syndesmosis

ligaments that connect two bones but limit their motion between ulna and radius between tibia and fibula

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amphiarthroses-symphysis

bones are separated by a wedge or pad of cartilage between the pubic bones of the two coxal bones

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synovial joints

diarthroses joints are also called

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examples of diarthroses joints

shoulder joint, elbow joint, hip joint, knee joint

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synovial joint

more movement, more injury, less strength

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angular movements

abduction/adduction flexion/extension

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abduction

away from midline

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adduction

towards midline

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flexion

reduces angle between articulating elements

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extension

increases angle between articulating elements

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special movements

inversion/eversion dorsiflexion/plantar flexion lateral flexion protraction/retraction opposition depression/elevation

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inversion

turning sole inward causes more injury

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eversion

turning sole outward

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dorsiflexion

foot upwards(toes up)

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plantar flexion

foot downwards(stepping on gas)

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lateral flexion

vertebral column bends to the side

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protraction

jaw outward, cross arms

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retraction

back to normal, jaw back, arms uncrossed

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opposition

thumb with any other finger pressed together

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depression

move something downward(inferior)

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elevation

move something upward(superior)

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gliding joint

monaxial slight linear motion clavicle and manubrium

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pivot joint

monaxial rotation joint at C1 and C2

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saddle joint

biaxial angular motion looks like saddle carpometacarpal joint

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hinge joint

monaxial angular motion elbow joint, knee joint, ankle joint

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ellipsoid joint

biaxial angular motion metacarpophalangeal joint WRIST area looks like stamp

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ball and socket joint

triaxial angular motion, circumduction, rotation shoulder joint, hip joint

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skeletal muscle

pulls on skeletal bone, voluntary contraction

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cardiac muscle

pushes blood through arteries and veins, rhythmic contractions

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smooth muscle

pushes floods and solids along the digestive tract(example) involuntary contraction

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4 basic properties of muscle

excitability, contractibility, extensibility, elasticity

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excitability

ability to respond to stimuli

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contractibility

ability to shorten and exert a pull or tension

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extensibility

ability to continue to contract over a range of resting lengths

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elasticity

ability to rebound toward its original length

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skeletal muscle functions

produce skeletal movement maintain posture and body position support soft tissue regulate entering and exiting of material regulate body temperature

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epimysum tissue

dense tissue that surrounds entire muscle

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perimysium

dense tissue that divides the muscle into parallel components of fascicles(muscle fibers)

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endomysium

dense tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers

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structural order of organization of skeletal tissue

skeletal muscle-EPIMYSIUM muscle fascicle-PERIMYSIUM muscle fiber(cell)-ENDOMYSIUM

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50

calcium ions

what ion triggers muscle contraction

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sarcolemma

membrane that surrounds the muscle cell

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sarcoplasm

cytosol of the muscle cell

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myofibirls

sarcoplasm contains

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myofibrils

responsible for the contraction of muscles

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sarcoplasmic reticulum

surrounding each myofibril is the

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myofilaments

myofibrils are made of

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thin protein filaments

actin

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thick protein filaments

myosin

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sacromere organization

myosin and actin both arranged in repeating units called sacromeres

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sacromere

main functioning unit of muscle fibers consists of overlapping actin and myosin overlapping creates the striations that give skeletal muscle its identifiable characteristic

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each sacromere consists of

z line i band a band(cause striations) h band m line

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myosin

dark purple

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actin

light pink

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h band

myosin/thick filament only

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a band

myosin and actin

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smaller

upon contraction: H and I bands get

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larger

upon contraction: zone of overlap gets

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closer together

upon contraction: z lines move

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remains constant

upon contraction: A band

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troponin

holds tropomysin in position

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tropomysin

protein that covers the binding sites when the muscles is relaxed

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T-tubule function

conduct impulses getting active potential to start sarcoplasmic reticulum

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acetylcholine

the main neurotransmitter involved with skeletal muscle contraction

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1:contraction cycle begins

acetylchloine released causes release of calcium ions from the SR

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2:active site exposure

calcium ions bind to troponin tropomyosin molecules rolls away from active sites

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3:cross bridge formation

myosin heads bind to active sites

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4:myosin head pivoting

energy released as myosin heads pivot toward M line

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5:cross bridge detachment

ATP binds to myosin heads, breaking cross bridge

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6:myosin reactiviation

ATP reactivates myosin head and return to normal positions

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3 major types of muscle fibers

fast, intermediate, slow

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fast fibers

white fibers

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intermediate fibers

pink fibers

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slow fibers

red fibers

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fast fiber characteristics

large in diameter large glycogen reserves few mitochondria muscles contract using ANAEROBIC metabolism fatigue easily can contract in .01 seconds or less after stimulation produce powerful contractions

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slow fiber characteristics

HALF the diameter of fast fibers take 3 TIMES longer to contract after stimulation can contract for extended periods of time contain abundant myoglobin(red color) muscles contract using AEROBIC metabolism large network of capillaries

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intermediate fiber characteristics

similar to fast fibers: low myoglobin, high glycolytic enzyme concentration, ANAEROBIC metabolism similar to slow fibers: lots of mitochondria, greater capillary supply, resist fatigue

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fast fibers

eye and hand muscles sprinters intense workouts

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slow/intermediate fibers

back and leg muscles marathon runners training for long distance

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prime movers(agonists)

responsible for producing a particular movement

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antagonists

actions oppose the action of the agonist

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synergists

assist the prime mover in performing an action

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fixaters

agonist and antagonist muscles contracting at the same time to stabalize a joint

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primer mover example

biceps brachii-flexes the lower arm

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antagonists example

triceps brachii-extends the lower arm

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synergists example

latissimus dorsi and teres major contract to move the arm medially over the posterior body

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fixators example

flexor and extensor muscles contract at the same time to stabiliaze an outstretched hand

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first class lever

fulcrum(joint) lies between the applied force and the resistance force(opposed force)

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first class lever example

tilting the head forward and backward

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second class lever

resistance is located between the applied force and the fulcrum(joint)

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100

second class lever example

standing on your tiptoes

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