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1

intermolecular forces

forces between separate particles

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london forces

IM forces due to temporarily induced dipoles

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3

dipole dipole

IM forces due to permanently induced dipole

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4

hydrogen bonding

a special very strong dipole force due to the attraction of a ‘special H’ to an ‘X atom’, includes NOF as they are more EN

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viscosity

measure of flow resistance

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surface tension

measure of energy needed to increase surface area

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constant

how does temperature behave during a phase change

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Hfus and Hvap

how do you determine Hsublimation?

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melt, evaporate, sublime

endothermic processes (3)

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deposit, freeze, condense

exothermic processes (3)

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vapor pressure

pressure of a gas that forms above a liquid or solid

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always goes up (VP)

as T goes up, VP __

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goes down (VP)

as IM goes up, VP __

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boiling point

temperature at which VP of a substance = external pressure

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Clausius Clapeyron

equation that gives the VP/ T curve and values of Hvap and Hfus

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q= h x amount

equation during a phase change (think heating/cooling curve)

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critical point

temperature and pressure above which there is no distinction between liquid and gas

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triple point

where all three states of matter exist simultaneously

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amorphous solid

solid without a set 3D repeating pattern

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crystalline solid

solid with a set 3D repeating pattern

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ionic solid

solid made of ions

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metallic solid

solid made of metal

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covalent network solid

a covalent solid with no discrete molecules, “hard”, high melting point

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molecular solid

a covalent solid, low melting point, made up of C,H, O

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1/2

fraction representing a face of a square

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1/4

fraction representing the edge of a square

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1/8

fraction representing the corner of a square

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4

how many atoms in a face centered cube

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2

how many atoms in a body centered cube

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1

how many atoms in a primitive cube

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fcc

cubic closest packing is exactly equal to

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2 per atom

how many tetrahedral holes are there

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1 per atom

how many octahedral holes are there

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solubility

maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a set temperature

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saturated solution

solution that cannot dissolve more solute

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unsaturated solution

can dissolve more solute

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supersaturated solution

an unstable condition in which a solution has more solute dissolved than the solubility limit allows

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solubility increases always

how does a rise in pressure affect gas solubility

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Cgas = k x Pgas

Henry’s Law

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solubility decreases always

how does a rise in temperature affect gas solubility

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no effect

how does a rise in pressure affect solid/liquid solubility

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usually goes up

how does a rise in temperature affect solid/liquid solubility

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mol A/ mol solution

units of mole fraction

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mol A/ L solution

units of M

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mol A/ kg solvent

units of m

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colligative properties

properties of solutions that depend only on the number of solute particles

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vapor pressure lowering

as concentration of solute increases, VP goes down

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Psolvent = Xsolvent x Psolvent

Raoult’s Law

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boiling point elevation

as solution concentration goes up, BP goes up

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freezing point depression

as solute concentration goes up, freezing point goes down

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multiply number of ions by M or m value

how to determine Meff or meff?

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pi = Meff x R x T

osmosis / osmolarity eq

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g/ mol

units of molar mass

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colloids

a dispersion of a substance in a medium such that the size of dispersed particles is 5nm- 1000 nm

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tyndall effect

name of the effect that causes colloids to scatter light

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solution

homogeneous, clear, molecule or ion, do not settle, cannot filter, does not scatter light

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colloid

heterogeneous, clear, 5nm-1000nm, does not settle, cannot filter, scatters light

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suspension

heterogeneous, >1000 nm, cloudy, can filter, settles over time

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always goes up

as temperature goes up, reaction rate

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usually goes up

as concentration of reactants increases, reaction rate

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exponent

how do you determine the order of a reaction

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sum of exponents

overall reaction order is determined by

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M/ sec

units of k for a zero order rate law

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1/sec

units of k for a first order rate law

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1/ M (sec)

units of k for a second order rate law

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A = -kt + Ao

equation for a zero order rate law

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ln A = - kt + ln Ao

equation for a first order rate law

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1/A = kt + 1/ Ao

equation for a second order rate law

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because M is not in the units of k

why can you use proportional values in a first order rate law

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half life

length of time required for only 1/2 amount to remain (first order!)

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kt1/2 = ln 2

half life equation used in first order rates

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collision theory

states that rate is proportional to rate of collisions, reactants must hit in proper directions, and particles must hit with enough energy to convert products

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lower Ea

why are exothermic reactions faster than endothermic ones

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ln (k2/ k1) = -Ea/ R (1/T2 - 1/T1)

Arrhenius equation (R= 8.314 J/mol k )

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the slowest step

what is the rate determining step

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catalyst

a substance added to a reaction that is not a reactant or product, alters the mechanism for a lower Ea, present at start of mechanism and reforms at end

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intermediate

an unstable molecule that formed early and is used later

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H+ donator

bronsted lowry acid

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H+ receiver

bronstead lowry base

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amphoteric

a substance that can either be an acid or base depending on partner (Ex. H2O)

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pKw (14)

pH + pOH =

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-log OH-

pOH=

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-log H+

pH=

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Kw

[H+] x [OH-] =

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1.0 x 10^-14

the value of Kw is

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86

digits to the right of the decimal

how do sig figs work for logs in pH/pOH values

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stronger

what does a large ka tell you about a weak acid or base

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Kw

Ka x Kb =

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the weaker the conjugate base

the stronger the conjugate acid,

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pKw

pKa + pKb =

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-log Ka

pKa =

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smaller

more acidic, larger Ka, ____ pKA

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HX

binary acid

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horizontal: more acidic is more EN

vertical: more acidic is larger

trend for determining binary acid strength

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HXO

oxoacids

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more Os, more acidic

more EN X, more acidic

trend for determining oxoacid strength

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Ka1 > Ka2

polyprotic acid series

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buffer

solution that resists pH change, a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base (or a reaction that an result in such mixture)

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pH = pKa

when [HA] = [A-], then

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Henderson Hasselbach (buffers)

pH = pKa + log (weak base conc)/ (weak acid conc)

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