3 Communications

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What is a network?

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141 Terms

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What is a network?

A collection of computing devices connected together

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What are the advantages of networks?

  • Hardware can be shared

  • Software can be shared

  • Data can be shared

  • Computers may communicate between each other with messages or email

  • Administration is centralised

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What are the disadvantages of networks?

  • Viruses can be spread to all devices on a network

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  • Hackers may access computers on a network

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  • Can be expensive to install

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  • Networks may be slower than using standalone computers

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What are the 2 main types of network?

Local Area Network (LAN)

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Wide Area Network (WAN)

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What is a LAN network?

A network in which all the computer systems are located in a fairly small geographical area

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What is a WAN network?

-A network in which all the computer systems are located over a large geographical area

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-Many LANs can be linked using a WAN

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What is a widely known example of a WAN?

the internet

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What does a star network topology look like?

Each node is connected to a central node which may be another computer or a hub

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What are the advantages of a star network topology?

  • Faster connection speed - each node has a dedicated cable

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  • Won't slow down as much when many people online

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  • Fault finding is simples - individual faults easier to trace

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  • Relatively secure - client-server connection is unique

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  • New nodes can be added without affecting others

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What are the disadvantages of a star network topology?

  • Expensive setup - increased cabling costs

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  • If a cable fails

node unable to recieve data

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  • Difficult to install - multiple cables - increased if LAN is over a number of buildings

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  • Server can get congested - all communications must pass through

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What does a ring network topology look like?

The nodes are connected in a ring

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What are the advantages of a ring network topology?

  • Data transfer is quick without bottleneck - consistent data transfer speeds

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  • Simple transmission of data - only one direction

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  • Adding additional nodes has little impact on bandwidth

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  • Prevents network collisions

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What are the disadvantages of a ring network topology?

  • If one CS fails

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  • If theres a problem with main cable or connection

whole network goes down

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  • Difficult to troubleshoot

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  • To add another node

network must temporarily be shut down as all nodes are wired together

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What does a bus network topology look like?

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What are the advantages of a bus network topology?

  • Cheaper to install

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  • Easy to install

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  • Easy to add new nodes by branching them off the main cable

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What are the disadvantages of a bus network topology?

  • Not that secure as all data transmitted down one cable

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  • Transmission times slower with more users online

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  • If main cable fails

all clients affected

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  • More difficult to find faults

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What does a mesh network topology look like?

Every node is directly connected to every other node

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What are the advantages of a mesh network topology?

  • Very reliable for data transmission

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  • Very robust as no single point will bring down the network if it fails

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What are the disadvantages of a mesh network topology?

  • Expensive setup

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  • Complex to install

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What is a file server?

The computer on a network that stores the files used by other workstation

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How does a wireless router connect devices?

Via radio signals

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How does a wireless device connect to a router?

using access points

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How does a wired network connect devices?

using physical connections

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What are the disadvantages of a wired network?

  • Difficult to install as wires must be routed to every station

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  • Expensive to install

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What are the advantages of a wired network?

  • Faster transmission speeds

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  • More secure

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What are the advantages of a wireless network?

  • Mobile equipment can easily log in

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  • Easy to install

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  • Cheap to install

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What are the disadvantages of a wireless network?

  • Can be hacked more easily

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  • Transmission speeds slow as more users connect

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What is the purpose of a router?

  • Forwards packets of data along a network

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  • Determines the best path for the packets

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What is the purpose of a hub?

Connection point between cables in a network

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What is the purpose of a switch?

Filters and forwards packets to intended destination

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What is the purpose of a bridge?

Connects one LAN to another

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What is the purpose of a gateway?

Connects a LAN to a WAN such as the internet

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What are the two ways data can travel around networks?

  • circuit switching

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  • packet switching

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What is circuit switching?

  • a dedicated link between 2 nodes

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  • no other data can be transmitted along the same route when the connection is open

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Advantages of circuit switching?

  • Very reliable

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  • Once the connection is established

it is fast

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  • Tends to be error free

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Disadvantages of circuit switching?

  • Takes time to establish a connection

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  • The connection will be broken if anywhere on the route fails

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What is packet switching?

  • Data is split up into packets

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  • When the packet arrives at a switch/router the address is read and it is sent along the next free path

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  • Packets may arrive at the destination in a different order to which they were sent

but can reassemble using info in the packet when all the packets have arrived

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What is contained in a data packet?

  • Source address

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  • Destination address

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  • How many packets are in the message

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  • Info on how this packet fits into the message

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  • Other tracking info

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  • The data itself

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  • A checksum showing the data hasn't been corrupted

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Advantages of packet switching?

  • Packets do not need a dedicated line

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  • If a route is blocked or busy

the packet can take an alternate route

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  • Efficient - if one packet doesn't arrive

only that one needs to be resent

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  • Tends to be error free

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Disadvantages of packet switching?

  • Packets may arrive in the wrong order

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  • Can cause a delay until all packets arrive

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  • Large memory needed to hold packets until all the message is assembled

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What are protocols?

a set of rules that defines a method for transmitting data between different devices over a network.

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In general

what should a protocol contain?

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  • a type of error checking

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  • a data compression method

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  • how the sending device will indicate that it has finished sending

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  • how the receiving device will indicate that it has recieved the message

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What is the Ethernet protocol?

Describes how network devices can format data for transmission using frames and packets along a wired network and the standards for types of network cabling used

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What is the Wifi protocol?

Describes how wireless protocols can be sent and received. A common protocol is 801.11

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What is the TCP/IP protocol used for?

Transmission control protocol (TCP) and internet protocol (IP). These two distinct network protocols are used to send data around the internet.

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What is the HTTP protocol?

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol describes the rules used to identify and transfer multi-media webpages over the internet

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