Biology

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What is biology?

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Biology

10th

146 Terms

1

What is biology?

The study of life

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2

What is an organism?

Any living thing

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3

What is growth?

The process of becoming larger

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4

What is development?

changes an organism undergoes in its lifetime before reaching its adult form

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5

What is reproduction?

the production of offspring

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6

What is stimulus?

a change to which an organism reacts to

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7

What is homeostasis?

stable internal environment

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8

What is adaptation?

A trait that helps an organism survive and develop over time

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9

What is a hypothesis?

testable explanation

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10

What is an experiment?

a procedure performed to test a hypothesis & collect precise data

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11

What is a control group?

the group that does not receive the factor being tested

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12

What is an independent variable?

manipulated variable

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13

What is a dependent variable?

variable that is measured because of changes in the independent variable

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14

What does constant mean in an experiment?

The thing that stays the same

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15

What is data?

information gathered from observations

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16

What are the characteristics of living things?

made of one or more cells, displays organization, grows and develops, reproduces, responds to stimuli, requires energy, maintains homeostasis, adaptations evolve over time

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17

What is the first step of the scientific method?

ask a question

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18

What is the second step of the scientific method?

Form a hypothesis

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19

What is the third step of the scientific method?

experiment

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20

What is the fourth step of the scientific method?

analyze results

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21

What is the fifth step of the scientific method?

Draw conclusions

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22

What is ecology?

The study of interactions between organisms and their environment

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23

What is the scientific definition for population?

A group of organisms that are the same species that occupy the same place at the same time

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24

What is an ecosystem?

a biological community & all the non-living factors that affect it

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25

What is a biome?

A group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities

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26

What is a habitat?

where an organism lives

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27

What is a niche?

The role of an organism in its habitat

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28

What is symbiosis?

Any relationship in which two species live closely together

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29

What is an autotroph?

An organism that makes its own food

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30

What is a heterotroph?

An organism that cannot make its own food. a consumer

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31

What is a herbivore?

an animal that only eats plants

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32

What is a carnivore?

An animal that only eats other animals

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33

What is an omnivore?

An organism that eats both plants and animals

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34

Which biome is cold and dry, the ground is permanently frozen, and the species include caribou and grasses/mosses?

Tundra

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35

Which biome is the biome of the needle-leaf forest, is the largest biome, and the species include moose and fir/spruce trees?

Taiga

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36

Which biome is warmer and wetter than the Taiga, has leaves change color in the fall and drop off, and the species include a wide variety of trees and deer/squirrels?

Temperate/Deciduous Forest

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37

Which biome has the greatest number of different organisms, provides 1/4 of our medicine, and includes species such as vines/ferns and amphibians?

Tropical Rainforest

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38

Which biome can be referred to as Prairies, droughts and fire prevent it from becoming a forest, and species in this biome include buffalo and tall/short grasses?

Temperate Grassland

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39

Which biome is covered with grasses and shrubs, has two seasons which are the wet and dry seasons, and species include antelope and lions?

Savanna

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40

Which biome is the driest biome, gets little rain, and the species in this biome are organisms such as cactus' or reptiles?

Desert

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41

What is meant by the "10% rule" when talking about trophic levels?

Only 10% of the energy available at one trophic level can be passed to the next

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42

What is the order of the trophic level?

producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers

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43

When an arrow in a food web is pointing towards another animal, which animal is the one being consumed?

The one that the arrow is going away from

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44

What is parasitism?

One organism benefits and the other is harmed

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45

What is commensalism?

one organism benefits and the other is unaffected

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46

What is mutualism?

both organisms benefit

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47

What do food chains/webs always start with?

a producer

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48

What is a food chain?

A sequence of organisms that eat one another in an ecosystem

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49

What is a food web?

a diagram that shows all the feeding relationships in an ecosystem

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50

What is a decomposer?

An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms

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51

What is a cell?

Basic unit of life

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52

What is a eukaryote?

cell with a nucleus

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53

What is a prokaryote?

unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus

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54

What is a cell/plasma membrane?

surrounds the cell & lets certain things in but not others

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55

What is the phospholipid bilayer?

Cell membrane made of 2 layers of lipid molecules

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56

What is a nucleus?

Control center of the cell

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57

What is cytoplasm?

a jellylike fluid inside the cell in between the cell membrane and the nucleus

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58

What is the mitochondria?

Powerhouse of the cell

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59

What do ribosomes do?

site of protein synthesis

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60

What is different about the Rough ER to the Smooth ER?

The rough ER has ribosomes attached to the surface which it's considered 'rough'

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61

What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)?

transports materials throughout the cell

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62

What does the Golgi Apparatus do?

packages proteins

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63

What is a vacuole?

storage area of the cell

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64

What is a cell wall's function?

provides support and protection for the cell

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65

What do chloroplasts do?

capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy through photosynthesis

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66

What do lysosomes do?

remove any excess or worn-out cell parts

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67

What is the Cell Theory?

  1. All living things are composed of cells2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things3. New cells are produced from existing cells

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68

What are the 3 cell organelles only found in plant cells?

chloroplasts, cell wall, vacuole

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69

What is cellular respiration?

the process that turns chemical energy into usable energy in a cell

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70

What is the Calvin Cycle?

light-independent reactions during phase two of photosynthesis in which energy is stored in organic molecules as glucose

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71

What cycle is associated with cellular respiration?

Krebs Cycle

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72

What are the two types of cellular respiration?

aerobic and anaerobic

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73

Which type of cellular respiration does not need oxygen?

Anaerobic

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74

Which type of cellular respiration needs oxygen?

aerobic

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75

What is glycolysis?

anaerobic process that splits a molecule of glucose every time it occurs (also first stage of cellular respiration)

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76

What is adenosine triphosphate?

ATP (energy)

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77

What are the products in photosynthesis?

Glucose and O₂

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78

What are the products in Cellular Respiration?

CO₂, H₂O, and ATP

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79

Where does photosynthesis occur?

Chloroplast

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80

Where does cellular respiration occur?

mitochondria

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81

What is mitosis?

cell division

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82

What is interphase?

period of the cell cycle between cell divisions

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83

What is the order of mitosis?

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

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84

What phase is the longest in mitosis?

prophase

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85

What phase is the reverse of prophase?

telophase

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86

In what phase do the chromosomes line up in the middle?

Metaphase

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87

In what phase do the centrioles & spindle fibers appear & move toward poles?

anaphase

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88

What phase do animal cells use cleavage furrow to separate?

cytokinesis

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89

What is the shortest phase of mitosis?

metaphase

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90

In what phase do the centromeres uncouple & spindle fibers shorten & disappear?

anaphase

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91

In what phase do the Nuclear Envelope/Nucleoli disappear?

prophase

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92

In what phase do plant cells use cell plate to separate?

cytokinesis

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93

In what phase does the Nuclear Envelope/Nucleoli return?

telophase

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94

In what phase do the microtubules attach to kinetochore proteins on centromeres?

metaphase

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95

What phase is the division of cytoplasm?

cytokinesis

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96

In what phase do the chromosomes spread out into chromatin?

telophase

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97

In what phase does the chromatin scrunch into chromosomes?

prophase

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98

What is a chromosome?

DNA-containing structure that carries genetic material from one generation to another

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99

What is cyclin?

protein that regulates the cell cycle

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100

What is apoptosis?

programmed cell death

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