BIOLOGY MIDTERM

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118 Terms

1

organnelles

tiny cell structures that carry out functions within a cell

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major parts of cell

nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane

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cell membrane

A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.

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structure of cell membrane

fluid mosaic model

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major function of cell

protection, transportation, communication

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phospholipid bilayer

a two-layered arrangement of phosphate and lipid molecules that form a cell membrane, the hydrophobic lipid ends facing inward and the hydrophilic phosphate ends facing outward.

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glycerol head

hydrophilic

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fatty acid tail

hydrophobic

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can move laterally to allow small molecules (o2, co2, h2o)

function of phospholipid

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role of Cholesterol in phospholipid bilayer

decreases fluidity in plasma membrane, which makes the membrane more stable

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11

carbohydrates

enabling cell to distinguish one type of cell from anaother

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12

membrane proteins

integral and peripheral

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peripheral proteins

The proteins of a membrane that are not embedded in the lipid bilayer; they are appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane.

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integral proteins

embedded in the lipid bilayer

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function of integral proteins

channel proteins

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channel proteins

help cells import or export needed materials

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phospholipid

kapag maliit ang dadaan

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channel proteins

kapag malaki ang dadaan

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transport proteins

help materials cross the membrane

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cell recognition proteins

enables cells to distinguish own cells from that of other organism

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enzymatic proteins

participate in metabolic reactions such as degradative and synthetic reactions

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cytoskeleton proteins

act as muscle and skeleton to maintain cell shape and motility

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junction proteins

assist cell-to-cell adhesion and communication

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receptor proteins

facilitate exchange pf signals with other cells by changing shape to allow a specific molecule to bind to it

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cell wall

responsible for maintaning the shape of cell

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located outside the cell/ protection of plant cell

cell wall

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27

plant composition

cellulose

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28

bacteria composition

peptidoglycan

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29

fungi

chitin

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cytosol

the fluid consisting mainly of water

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cytoplasm

fills the space between the cell membrane and the nucleus

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many chemical reactions took place in the

cytoplasm

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cytoplasmic streaming (cyclosis)

circular movement of cytoplasm within a cell

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nucleus

storehouse of genetic information in the form of dna inside the cells

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control center of the cell

nucleus

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chromosome fixed number

46

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nuclear envelope

special membrane that encloses the dna

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nuclear pore

allows large molecules to pass between the nucleus and cytoplasm

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nucleolus

dense region where ribosomes, essential for making proteins are assembled

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nucleoplasm

cytoplasm inside the nucleus

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chromatin

part of chromosome from a non dividing cell

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organelles

subcellular structures

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ribosomes

site of protein synthesis

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formed in the nucleolus

ribosomes

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can be attached or free floating in cytoplasm

ribosomes

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

interconnected network of thin folded membranes

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arrange like a maze, lumen, sites

Endoplasmic Reticulum

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this composition is similar to the cell membrane

Endoplasmic Reticulum

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rough er

with ribosomes/ hels in the synthesis of proteins

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soft er

without ribososmes/ helps in the synthesis of lipids

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Golgi apparatus

discovered by camilo golgi

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layered stacks of membrane enclosed spaces

Golgi apparatus

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the shipping and receiving center of the cell

Golgi apparatus

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functions for modification of proteins

Golgi apparatus

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cis face

receiving side of golgi apparatus

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trans face

shipping side of golgi apparatus

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lysosomes

formed by golgi apparatus

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round shaped membrane bound structures containing chemcals that can break down materials in the cell

lysosomes

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suicide bag of the cell

lysosomes

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numerous in animal cells than in plant cells

lysosomes

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lysozyme

contain powerful enzyme lysozome, which can defend a cell

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phagocytosis

lysosome digesting food

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autophagy

lysosomes break down damaged organelles

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vesicles

interconnects other membranes by transport of materials

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generally short lived and are formed and recycled as needed by the cell

vesicles

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3 functions of vesicles

transport, storage, secretory

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endomembrane system

nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, cell membrane.

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vacuoles in plant cells

fluid filled sac for the storage of materials needed by the cell that includes water, food, molecules, iorganic ions and enzymes

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plant vacuole

central vacuole

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animal vacuole

food vacuole

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protist vacuole

contractile vacuole

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Peroxisomes

small vesicles around the cell

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contain enzymes that remove hydrogen atoms from arious substrates and transfer them to oxygen, thus producing hydrogen peroxide

Peroxisomes

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Mitochondrion (Mitochondria)

Powerhouse of the cell

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bean shaped and have two membranes

Mitochondrion (Mitochondria)

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generate cellular energy (adenosine triphosphate)

Mitochondrion (Mitochondria)

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site for cellular respiration

Mitochondrion (Mitochondria)

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has its own dna

Mitochondrion (Mitochondria)

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Mitochondrial DNA

inherited from mother

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from cytoplasm of egg cell during fertilization

mitochondrial dna

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Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis)

oldest ancestor of mankind

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matrix

where cellular respiration takes place

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atp synthase

formed in the form of mitochondria

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cristae junctions

fold inner membrane which increases surface

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chloroplast

found only in producers (organism containing chlorophyll)

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use energy from sunlight to make own food

chloroplast

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has its own dna

chloroplast

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Chloroplast

outer membrane, inner membrane

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chlrophyll

pigment

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thylakoid

saclike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts

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endosymbiont theory

explains that eukaryotic cells may have evolved from prokaryotic cells

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centrosome

small dense region of cytoplasm where microtubules are organized ans assembled

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it participates in cellular division in animal cells

centrosome

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cilia and flagella

two locomotory projections in eukaryotes

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cilia

look like little hairs

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flagella

look like a whip or tail

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pro

before

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eu

true

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karyon

nucleus

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prokaryotic cells

small and simple, unicellular, nucleus is absent

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