MGH Chapters 31 and 32 Test

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Ottoman, Russia, China, Japan common problems

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Ottoman, Russia, China, Japan common problems

  1. Military weakness, vulnerability to foreign threats

  2. Internal weakness due to economic problems, financial difficulties, and corruption

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Ottoman, Russia, China, Japan reform efforts

  1. Attempts at political and educational reform and at industrialization

  2. Turned to western models

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Ottoman, Russia, China, Japan results of reform

  1. Ottoman empire, Russia, and China unsuccessful; societies on the verge of collapse

  2. Reform in Japan was more thorough; Japan emerged as an industrial power

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The nature of decline in the ottoman empire

Military decline since the late seventeenth century

Extensive territorial losses in nineteenth century

Economic difficulties began in seventeenth century

The "capitulations": European domination of Ottoman economy

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Ottoman military decline since the late seventeenth century

  1. Ottoman forces behind European armies in strategy, tactics, weaponry, training

  2. Janissary corps politically corrupt, undisciplined

  3. Provincial governors gained power, private armies

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Extensive territorial losses in nineteenth century

  1. Lost Caucasus and central Asia to Russia; western frontiers to Austria; Balkan provinces to Greece and Serbia

  2. Egypt gained autonomy after Napoleon's failed campaign in 1798 \n (a) Egyptian general Muhammad Ali built a powerful, modern army \n (b) Ali's army threatened Ottomans, made Egypt an autonomous province

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Muhammad Ali

who built a powerful army modeled on European forces and ruled Egypt from 1805 to 1848.

He also launched a program of industrialization, concentrating on cotton textiles and arma- ments.

By 1820, though still subordinate to the Ottomans, it was clear he ruled Egypt.

In 1839 he even invaded Syria and Anatolia, threatening to capture Istanbul and topple the Ottoman state.

Transformed Egypt into an autonomous state.

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Economic difficulties began in seventeenth century

  1. Less trade through empire as Europeans shifted to the Atlantic Ocean basin

  2. Exported raw materials, imported European manufactured goods

  3. Heavily depended on foreign loans, half of the revenues paid to loan interest

  4. Foreigners began to administer the debts of the Ottoman state by 1882

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The "capitulations": European domination of Ottoman economy

  1. Extraterritoriality: Europeans exempt from Ottoman law within the empire

  2. Could operate tax-free, levy their own duties in Ottoman ports

  3. Deprived empire of desperately needed income

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Capitulations

agreements that exempted European visitors from Ottoman law and provided European powers with extraterritoriality—the right to exercise jurisdiction over their own citizens according to their own laws.

Began in 16th c. when Ottoman sultans signed capitulation treaties to avoid the burden of ad- ministering justice for communities of foreign merchants.

By the nine- teenth century, Ottoman officials regarded the capitulations as humiliating intrusions on their sovereignty.

Capitulations also served as instruments of economic power by European businesspeople who established tax-exempt banks and commercial enterprises in the Ottoman Empire, and they permit- ted foreign governments to levy du- ties on goods sold in Ottoman ports.

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Ottoman reform and reorganization

  1. Attempt to reform military led to violent Janissary revolt (1807-1808)

  2. Reformer Mahmud II (1808-1839) became sultan after revolt

  3. Legal and educational reforms of the Tanzimat ("reorganization") era (1839-1876)

  4. Opposition to Tanzimat reforms

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Reformer Mahmud II (1808-1839) became sultan after revolt

  1. When Janissaries resisted, Mahmud had them killed; cleared the way for reforms

  2. He built an European-style army, academies, schools, roads, and telegraph

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Legal and educational reforms of the Tanzimat ("reorganization") era (1839-1876)

Ruling class sought sweeping restructuring to strengthen state. Wanted to reform Ottoman law to European liking so that capitulations were lifted and Ottomans recovered soveriegnty.

Broad legal reforms, reformers issued a com-

mercial code (1850), a penal code (1858), a maritime code (1863), and a new civil code (1870–1876) modeled after French legal system. All Ottomans equal before the law despite if Muslim or not.

State reform of education (1846, a complete system of primary and secondary schools leading to university-level instruction), free and compulsory primary education (1869)

Undermined authority of the ulama (previously in charge of legal and educational systems), enhanced the state authority

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Opposition to Tanzimat reforms

  1. Religious conservatives critical of attack on Islamic law and tradition

  2. Legal equality for minorities resented by some, even a few minority leaders

  3. Young Ottomans wanted more reform: freedom, autonomy, decentralization

  4. High-level bureaucrats wanted more power, checks on the sultan's power

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The Young Turk Era

Cycles of reform and repression

The Young Turks, after 1889, an active body of opposition

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Cycles of reform and repression

  1. 1876, coup staged by bureaucrats who demanded a constitutional government

  2. New sultan Abd al-Hamid II (1876-1909) proved an autocrat: suspended constitution, dissolved parliament, and punished liberals

  3. Continued Tanzimat army and administration reform: became source of the new liberal opposition

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The Young Turks, after 1889, an active body of opposition

  1. Founded by exiled Ottomans

  2. Called for universal suffrage, equality, freedom, secularization, women's rights

  3. Forced Abd al-Hamid to restore constitution, dethroned him (1909) and instituted puppet sultan

  4. Nationalistic: favored Turkish dominance within empire, led to Arab resistance

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Failed reform

Despite reform efforts, Ottoman empire could not ward off internal or external issues

Survived only bc European powers did not know how to dismantle it without disturbing the European power balance

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Russian Military defeat and social reform

The Crimean War (1853-1856)

Emancipation of serfs in 1861 by Alexander II

Political and legal reforms followed

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The Crimean War (1853-1856)

  1. Nineteenth-century Russia expanded from Manchuria, across Asia to Baltic Sea

  2. Sought access to Mediterranean Sea, moved on Balkans controlled by Ottomans

  3. European coalition supported Ottomans against Russia in Crimea

  4. Crushing defeat forced tsars to take radical steps to modernize army, industry

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Emancipation of serfs in 1861 by Alexander II

  1. Serfdom supported landed nobility, an obstacle to economic development

  2. Tsar Alexander II (1855-1881) in 1861 issued the Emancipation Manifesto

  3. Serfs gained right to land, but no political rights; had to pay a tax on the lands they were granted

  4. Many Serfs held land in mir (society) of other Serfs, so selling of land was not possible

  5. Emancipation did not increase agricultural production or have signifcant social difference for Serfs

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Political and legal reforms followed

  1. 1864, creation of zemstvos, local assemblies with representatives from all classes

  2. A weak system: nobles dominated, tsar held veto power

  3. Legal reform based on western European systems more successful: implemntation of juries, independent judges, professional attorneys, less judicial corruption

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Russian Industrilization

The Witte system: developed by Sergei Witte, minister of finance, 1892-1903

Industrial discontent intensified

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The Witte system: developed by Sergei Witte, minister of finance, 1892-1903

  1. Centerpiece of Witte’s policy was railway construction which stimulated other industries and connected the empire; trans-Siberian railway opened Siberia to large-scale settlement, exploitation, and industrialization.

  2. To raise domestic capitial, Witte remodeled the state bank, protected infant industries, secured foreign loans to finance industrialization efforts

  3. Witte’s industrialization effective; steel, coal, and oil industries grew

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Industrial discontent intensifiedIndustrial discontent intensified

  1. Rapid industrialization fell hardest on working classes, they had to deal with terrible conditions of living and factory work

  2. Workers rebelled and went on strikes

  3. Government outlawed unions, strikes; workers increasingly radical

  4. Business class supported autocracy and government policy that protected domestic industries, content to have no reform

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Repression and revolution

Cycles of protest and repression

Terrorism emerges as a tool of opposition

Russo-Japanese War, 1904-05: Russian expansion to east leads to conflict with Japan

Revolution of 1905: triggered by costly Russian defeat by Japan

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Cycles of protest and repression

  1. Peasants landless, no political power, frustrated by lack of meaningful reform

  2. Antigovernment protest and revolutionary activity increased in 1870s

  3. Intelligentsia (university students and class of intellectuals) advocated socialism and (some) anarchism, recruited in countryside

  4. Repression by tsarist authorities: secret police, censorship

  5. Re- pression, however, only served to radi- calize revolutionaries further and gave them new determination to overthrow the tsarist regime. Some subjects began speaking their own languages and often used schools and political groups as foundations for separatist movements \n

  6. Tsarist Authority responds with Russification: repressed use of lngauges other than Russian, restricted education to those loyal to tsar, sparked ethnic nationalism, attacks on Jews tolerated (pogroms)

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Terrorism emerges as a tool of opposition

  1. Alexander II, the reforming tsar, assassinated by a bomb in 1881

  2. Nicholas II (1894-1917), more oppressive, conservative ruler

1876: Land ad Freedom party promotes assanitiation of officials to force reforms.

1879: terrorist faction of party, the People’s Will, resolves to kill Alexander the II

Alexander II, the reforming tsar, assassinated by a bomb in 1881, sparking tsarist autocracy era of repression

1894: Nicholas II (1894-1917), weak ruler, supported oppresion and police control. To deflect attention from domestic issues + to nuetralize revol. movements, launched expansion efforts in east Asia.

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Russo-Japanese War, 1904-05: Russian expansion to east leads to conflict with Japan

Russia and Japan both interested in expansion into Korea and Manchuria, leading to Russo-Japanese War in 1904 that swiftly ended with Japanese victory in May 1905.

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Revolution of 1905: triggered by costly Russian defeat by Japan

Russian military defeat triggered widespread protest. January 1905 peaceful protest in St. Petersburg becomes Bloody Sunday massacre: 130 unarmed workers shot down by government troops.

Bloody Sunday triggered increased revolt: Peasants seized landlords' property; workers formed soviets (councils to organize strikes and negotiate with employers and gov- ernment authorities).

Government forced to make recessions.

Tsar forced to accept elected legislature, the Duma, first parlimentary institution in Russia; did not have power to dismantle governments, but still a major concession. Tensions continued, Romanav empire weakened even after order restored.

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Chinese opium war and unequal treaties

Opium trade a serious threat to Qing dynasty by nineteenth century

The Opium War (1839-1842)

Unequal treaties forced trade concessions from Qing dynasty

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Opium trade a serious threat to Qing dynasty by nineteenth century

  1. Chinese cohong system restricted foreign merchants to one port city

  2. China had much to offer, but little demand for European products (not open to trading)

  3. Europeans could only trade with China in silver, taxing on economy, needed other options

  4. East India Company cultivated opium to exchange for Chinese goods and silver

  5. About forty thousand chests of opium shipped to China yearly by 1838

  6. Opium has social and economic reprcussions in China, drained quantities of silver, and led to lots of addiction

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Opium War (1839-1842)

  1. Commissioner Lin Zexu directed to stop opium trade, destroyed shipments of opium

  2. British did not end trade; Lin confiscated and destroyed twenty thousand chests of opium

  3. British outraged and retaliated, easily crushed Chinese forces, destroyed Grand Canal

  4. Throughout 19th c Chinese suffered more military setbacks with Britain, France, and Japan

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Unequal treaties forced trade concessions from Qing dynasty

  1. serious of pacts that curtailed Chinese soveirgnty

  2. Forced into Treaty of Nanjing, 1842: Britain gained right to opium trade, most-favored-nation status, Hong Kong, open trade ports, exemptions from Chinese laws

  3. Similar unequal treaties made to other western countries and Japan, opening ports for trade, legalizing opium trade, and opening empire to Christian missionaries

  4. By 1900, China lost control of economy, ninety ports to foreign powers

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The Taiping rebellion

Internal turmoil in China in the later nineteenth century

The Taiping ("Great Peace") program proposed by Hong Xiuquan

Taiping defeat by combined Qing and foreign troops

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Internal turmoil in China in the later nineteenth century

  1. Population grew by 50 percent; land and food more slowly; poverty strained resources

  2. Other problems: official corruption, drug addiction

  3. Four major rebellions in 1850s and 1860s; the most dangerous was the Taiping

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The Taiping ("Great Peace") program proposed by Hong Xiuquan

1850 to 1864

Called for end of Qing dynasty; resented Manchu rule

Wanted radical social change: no private property, footbinding, concubinage, creation of communal wealth to be shared according to needs, simplification of the written language, and literacy for the masses. Decreed the equality of men and women.

Popular in southeast China; seized Nanjing (1853), made it capitial of Taiping Kingdom, moved on Beijing

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Taiping defeat by combined Qing and foreign troops

  1. Gentry sided with government, opposed to radical Taiping; Qing government had regional armies aided by European advisors and weapons

  2. Taipings defeated in 1864; the war claimed twenty to thirty million lives

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Reform frustrated

The Self-Strengthening Movement (1860-1895)

Spheres of influence eroded Chinese power

The hundred-days reforms (1898)

The Boxer rebellion (the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists), 1899-1900

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The Self-Strengthening Movement (1860-1895)

  1. “Chinese learning at the base, Western learning for use,” military and economic reform.

  2. Sought to blend Chinese cultural traditions (like confucianism and maintaining agrarian society) with European industrial technology

  3. Built shipyards, railroads, weapon industries, steel foundries, academies

  4. Not enough industry to make a significant change, all change was superficial

  5. Powerful empress dowager Cixi opposed changes. She used funds intended for the movement to better imperial life.

  6. Elites worried that indistruliziation would lead to social change that would steer China towards European education and away from Confucian values.

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Spheres of influence eroded Chinese power

  1. Foreign powers seized Chinese tribute states of Vietnam, Burma, Korea, Taiwan

  2. 1898, foreign powers carved China into spheres of economic influence, each a different province where the Qing government granted the foreigners with exclusive rights for railway and mineral development

  3. Distrsut among foreign powers only thing keeping Qing in tact

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The hundred-days reforms (1898)

  1. Spearheaded by Confucianist scholars Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao

  2. published series of treatises that reinterpretd confucianism to justify radical changes in imperial system. Wanted to make China an industrial power

  3. Young emperor Guangxu inspired to transform

    China into a constitutional monarchy, guarantee civil liber- ties, root out corruption, remodel the educational system, en- courage foreign influence in China, modernize military forces, and stimulate economic development.

  4. Movement crushed in 103 days by Cixi and elite supporters; emperor imprisoned; reformers killed, Liang and Kang flee to Japan

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The Boxer rebellion (the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists), 1899-1900

  1. Local militia attacked foreigners, Chinese Christians

  2. Crushed by European and Japanese troops

  3. Collapse of Qing dynasty in 1912

Anti-foreign uprising supported by Cixi bc she thought foreign powers were conspiring to effect her retirement.

Was a violent movmeent of Local militia who called themselves the Society of Righteous and Harmonious fists. Foreign press called them Boxers.

Went on rampage killing Chinese Christians, foreigners, and Chinese tied to foriegners.

A heavily armed force of British, French, Russian, U.S., German, and Japanese troops quickly crushed the Boxer movement. The Chinese government had to pay a punitive indemnity and allow foreign powers to station troops in Beijing at their embassies and along the route to the sea.

Revolutions broke out. By 1912, Qing dynasty fell.

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Japan: Tokugawa to Meiji

Crisis and reform in early nineteenth century

Foreign pressure for Japan to reverse long-standing closed door policy

The end of Tokugawa rule followed these humiliations

The Meiji restoration, 1868

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Crisis and reform in early nineteenth century

  1. Crisis: crop failure, high taxes, rising rice prices all led to protests and rebellions

    • Tokugawa bakufu tried conservative reforms, met with resistance

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Foreign pressure for Japan to reverse long-standing closed door policy

  1. 1844 requests by British, French, and United States for the right of entry rebuffed

  2. 1853, U.S. Commodore Perry sailed U.S. fleet to Tokyo Bay, demanded entry

  3. Japan forced to accept unequal treaties with United States and other western countries

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The end of Tokugawa rule followed these humiliations

  1. Widespread opposition to shogun rule, especially in provinces

  2. Dissidents rallied around emperor in Kyoto by 1858

Sudden foreign intrusion led to domestic crisis, resulting in the collapse of the Tokugawa bakufu. Imperial rule restored.

After complying to demands of foreigners, daimyo and the emperor opposed the Shogun’s rule and resented the humiliating unequal treaties.

Unhappy subjects rally around empire

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The Meiji restoration, 1868

  1. After brief civil war, Tokugawa armies defeated by dissident militia

  2. The boy emperor Mutsuhito, or Meiji, gained authority, restored empire system

  3. End of almost seven centuries of military rule in Japan

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Meiji reforms

Meiji government welcomed foreign expertise

Abolition of the feudal order essential to new government

Revamping tax system

Constitutional government, the emperor's "gift" to the people in 1889

Remodeling the economy and infrastructure

Costs of economic development borne by Japanese people

Japan became an industrial power in a single generation

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Meiji government welcomed foreign expertise

  1. Fukuzawa Yukichi studied western constitutions and education, went to Europe and US and liked their constitutional government, argued strongly for equality before the law (cerca 1860)

  2. Ito Hirobumi helped build Japanese constitutional government, traveled abroad in 1882 and 1883 to Europe and studied constitutions and administrative systems. Especially impressed with Germany. Used them as influence for draft of Japanese constitution.

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Abolition of the feudal order essential to new government

  1. wanted to centralize political power, needed to abolish old social order

  2. Daimyo and samurai lost status and privileges

  3. Districts reorganized to break up old feudal domains

  4. New conscript army ended military power of samurai; rebelled but quelled by 1878

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Revamping tax system

  1. Converted grain taxes to a fixed money tax: more reliable income for state

  2. Assessed taxes on potential productivity of arable land

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Constitutional government, the emperor's "gift" to the people in 1889

  1. 1889 consitiution was gift to people

  2. Drafted under Ito Hirobumi

  3. made Japan a constituitional monarchy with a legislature, the Diet.

  4. Emperor remained supreme, limited the rights of the people, had right to dissolve parliment. the constitution also limited the power of the Diet, and recognized individual rights but could limit them in the interest of the state.

  5. Less than 5 percent of adult males could vote

  6. Legislature, the Diet, was an opportunity for debate and dissent

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Remodeling the economy and infrastructure

  1. Created modern infastructures

  2. Transportation: railroads, telegraph, steamships. Tied local and regioal networks into a national level.

  3. Commerce and trade easier, abolished guild restricitions and internal tariffs

  4. Education: universal primary and secondary; competitive universities, often focused in scientific and technicl fields to support industrialization and economic growth

  5. Industry: privately owned, government controlled arms industry

  6. Zaibatsu: powerful financial cliques formed from government selling interprises to private investors to stimulate economic growth

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Costs of economic development borne by Japanese people

  1. Land tax cost peasants 40 percent to 50 percent of crop yield, provided 90 percent of state revenue

  2. Peasant uprisings crushed; little done to alleviate suffering

  3. Labor movement also crushed; Meiji law treated unions and strikes as criminal

  4. Industrialization and economic development were costly for peasants and working class

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Japan became an industrial power in a single generation

  1. Ended unequal treaties in 1899

  2. Defeated China in 1895 and Russia in 1904-1905

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Motives for imperialism

Modern imperialism

Two types of modern colonialism

Economic motives of imperialism

Political motives

Cultural justifications of imperialism

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modern imperialism

  1. Refers to domination of industrialized countries over subject lands

  2. Domination achieved through trade, investment, and business activities

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Two types of modern colonialism

  1. Colonies ruled and populated by migrants

  2. Colonies controlled by imperial powers without significant settlement

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Economic motives of imperialism

  1. European merchants and entrepreneurs made personal fortunes

  2. Overseas expansion for raw materials: rubber, tin, copper, petroleum

  3. Colonies were potential markets for industrial products

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Political motives

  1. Strategic purpose: harbors and supply stations for industrial nations

  2. Overseas expansion used to defuse internal tensions

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Cultural justifications of imperialism

  1. Christian missionaries sought converts in Africa and Asia

  2. "Civilizing mission" or "white man's burden" was a justification for expansion

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Tools of empire

Transportation technologies supported imperialism

Western military technologies increasingly powerful

Communication technologies linked imperial lands with colonies

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Transportation technologies supported imperialism

  1. Steam-powered gunboats reached inland waters of Africa and Asia

  2. Railroads organized local economies to serve imperial power

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Western military technologies increasingly powerful

  1. Firearms: from muskets to rifles to machines guns

  2. In Battle of Omdurman 1898, British troops killed eleven thousand Sudanese in five hours

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Communication technologies linked imperial lands with colonies

  1. Oceangoing steamships cut travel time from Britain to India from years to weeks

  2. Telegraph invented in 1830s, global reach by 1900

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British Empire in India

Company rule under the English East India Company

British imperial rule replaced the EIC, 1858

Economic restructuring of India and Ceylon (Sri Lanka)

British rule did not interfere with Indian culture or Hindu religion

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Company rule under the English East India Company

  1. EIC took advantage of Mughal decline in India, began conquest of India in 1750s

  2. Built trading cities and forts at Calcutta, Madras, Bombay

  3. Ruled domains with small British force and Indian troops called sepoys

  4. Sepoy mutiny, 1857: attacks on British civilians led to swift British reprisals

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British imperial rule replaced the EIC, 1858

  1. British viceroy and high-level British civil service ruled India

  2. British officials appointed a viceroy and formulated all domestic and foreign policy

  3. Indians held low-level bureaucratic positions

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Economic restructuring of India and Ceylon (Sri Lanka)

  1. Introduction of commercial crops: tea in Ceylon, also coffee and opium

  2. Built railroads and telegraph lines, new canals, harbors, and irrigation methods

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British rule did not interfere with Indian culture or Hindu religion

  1. Established English-style schools for Indian elites

  2. Outlawed Indian customs considered offensive, such as the sati

  3. Did not push Christianity

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Imperialism in central Asia and southeast Asia

"The Great Game" refers to competition between Britain and Russia in central Asia

Dutch East India Company held tight control of Indonesia (Dutch East India)

British colonies in southeast Asia

French Indochina created, 1859-1893

Kingdom of Siam (Thailand) left in place as buffer between Burma and Indochina

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"The Great Game" refers to competition between Britain and Russia in central Asia

  1. By 1860s Russian expansion reached northern frontiers of British India

  2. Russian and British explorers mapped, scouted, but never colonized Afghanistan

  3. Russian dominance of central Asia lasted until 1991

  4. Russia could not go into India bc of WWI and the fall of the tsarist regime

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  1. Dutch East India Company held tight control of Indonesia (Dutch East India)

As imperial tensions rose, Dutch tightened control of Indonesia which was valuable bc of its cash crops and rubber and tin.

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British colonies in southeast Asia

  1. Established colonial authority in Burma, 1880s, source of teak, ivory, rubies, and jade

  2. Port of Singapore founded 1824; was base for conquest of Malaya, 1870s, provided abundant supplies of tin and rubber, provided ports to control waterways around Indian Ocean and South China Sea

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French Indochina created, 1859-1893

  1. Consisted of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos

  2. French encouraged conversion to Christianity, and established western-style schools to foster connction with native elites

  3. Kingdom of Siam (Thailand) left in place as buffer between Burma (Brit) and Indochina (french)

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The scramble for Africa

Between 1875 and 1900, European powers seized almost the entire continent

South Africa settled first by Dutch farmers (Afrikaners) in seventeenth century

The Berlin Conference, 1884-1885

Colonial rule challenging and expensive

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Between 1875 and 1900, European powers seized almost the entire continent

  1. Early explorers charted the waters, gathered information on resources

  2. Missionaries like David Livingstone set up mission posts

  3. Henry Stanley sent by Leopold II of Belgium to create colony in Congo, 1870s

  4. To protect their investments and Suez Canal, Britain occupied Egypt, 1882

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South Africa settled first by Dutch farmers (Afrikaners) in seventeenth century

  1. 1652 Dutch EIC used it as supply stattiojn on Cape Town

  2. By 1800 was a European (Afrikaner) settler colony with enslaved black African population

  3. British seized, disrupting Afrikaner settlers with English law and langauge, Cape Colony in early nineteenth century, abolished slavery in 1833

  4. British-Dutch tensions led to Great Trek of Afrikaners inland to claim new lands

  5. Mid-nineteenth century, Afrikaners established Orange Free State in 1854, Transvaal in 1860

  6. Discovery of gold and diamonds in Afrikaner lands; influx of British settlers and more serious British interest in establishment of states in South Africa

  7. Tensions between British and Afrikaners

  8. Boer War/South African War broke out, 1899-1902, forught for land and resources of Orange Free State and Transvaal: British defeated Afrikaners, Union of South Africa in 1910

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The Berlin Conference, 1884-1885

  1. 1882 Brits occupied Egypt to protect the economic intersts of the Suez Canal (fastest sea route to India). Justified this by saying they were stabilizing Egypt.

  2. Egyptians grew hostile and other European powers worried that British control of the Suez canal would drastically shift global power dyanmics.

  3. Tensions led to Berlin Conference

  4. European powers + Ottoman + US set rules for carving Africa into colonies

  5. Occupation, supported by European armies, established colonial rule in Africa

  6. By 1900 all of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, was controlled by European powers

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Colonial rule challenging and expensive

"Concessionary companies": European governments granted considerable authority to private companies (Example: German Colonial Society for German Southwest Africa) \n (a) empowered to build plantations, mines, railroads \n (b) implemented forced labor and taxation, as in Belgian Congo \n (c) unprofitable, often replaced by more direct rule

Direct rule: replacing strong local rulers with maleable peoples--French model-- had administrative districts with European personnel who controlled tax collection, labor and military recruitment, and the maintenance of law and order.

a) kept natives in check and allowed for European administrators to engage in "civilizing mission" \n (b) hard to find enough European personnel (eg French West Africa

Indirect rule: control over subjects through local institutions--British model -- British colonial administrator Frederick D. Lugard was driving force behind idea -- reliant on using exisiting “tribal” authority and “customary laws”

(a) worked best in African societies that were highly organized \n (b) assumed/imposed their own ideas about what tribal rule and boundaries etc. were like firm tribal boundaries where often none existed

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European imperialism in the Pacific

Settler colonies in the Pacific

mperialists in paradise: delayed colonization of Pacific Islands until late nineteenth century

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Settler colonies in the Pacific

  1. 1770, Captain James Cook reached Australia, reported it suitable for settlement

  2. 1788, one thousand settlers established colony of New South Wales (mostly convicts)

  3. 1851, gold discovered; surge of European migration to Australia

  4. Fertile soil and timber of New Zealand attracted European settlers

  5. Europeans diseases dramatically reduced aboriginal populations

  6. Large settler societies forced indigenous peoples onto marginal lands (British settlers in Australia saw the land as belonging to no one. In New Zealand in 1840 British convinced native leaders to sign the treaty of waitangi which led to British colonial control)

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Imperialists in paradise: delayed colonization of Pacific Islands until late nineteenth century

  1. Early visitors to the Pacific were mostly whalers, merchants, some missionaries

  2. Late nineteenth century, European states sought coaling stations and naval ports

  3. By 1900, all islands but Tonga claimed by France, Britain, Germany and United States.

  4. Island plantations produced sugarcane, copra, guano

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U.S. imperialism in Latin America and the Pacific

The Monroe Doctrine, 1823: proclamation by U.S. president James Monroe

The Spanish-American War (1898-99)

The Panama Canal, 1903-1914

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The Monroe Doctrine, 1823: proclamation by U.S. president James Monroe

  1. Opposed European imperialism in the Americas; justified U.S. intervention

  2. United States purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867

  3. Hawaii became a protectorate in 1875, formally annexed in 1898

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The Spanish-American War (1898-99)

  1. United States defeated Spain and took over Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines

  2. United States backed Filipino revolt against Spain which coincided with the war, purchased and took over the colony (important colony for business and miliatary bc of strategic position in South China Sea)

  3. 1902-1904, bitter civil war killed two hundred thousand Filipinos, ended in U.S. victory

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The Panama Canal, 1903-1914

  1. US wanted easy passge way between atlantic and pacific

  2. Colombian government refused U.S. request to build canal at Panama isthmus

  3. United States helped rebels in 1903 establish the state of Panama for the right to build a canal and the zone the canal is in

  4. Then President Roosevelt added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine saying that the US could intervene in domestic affairs of countries in Latin/South America if the countries could not adequately protect US investmnets.

  5. Completed in 1914; gave United States access to Atlantic and Pacific

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Imperial Japan

apanese resented unequal treaties of 1860s, resolved to become imperial power

Meiji government bought British warships, built up navy, established military academies

The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)

The Russo-Japanese War (1904-05)

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Early Japanese expansion in nearby islands

  1. 1870s, to the north: Hokkaido, Kurile islands

  2. By 1879, to the south: Okinawa and Ryukyu Islands

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Meiji government bought British warships, built up navy, established military academies

  1. 1876, imposed unequal treaties on Korea at gunpoint

  2. Made plans to invade China

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The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)

  1. Rebellion in Korea: Chinese army sent to restore order, reassert authority

  2. Meiji leaders declared war against China, demolished Chinese fleet

  3. China forced to cede Korea, Taiwan, Pescadores Islands, Liaodong peninsula

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The Russo-Japanese War (1904-05)

  1. Russia also had territorial ambitions in Liaodong peninsula, Korea, Manchuria

  2. Japanese navy destroyed local Russian forces; Baltic fleet sent as reinforcements

  3. Japan now a major imperial power

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Empire and economy: two patterns of changes

Colonial rule transformed traditional production of crops and commodities

New crops transformed landscape and society

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Colonial rule transformed traditional production of crops and commodities

  1. Indian cotton grown to serve British textile industry

  2. Inexpensive imported textiles undermined Indian production

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New crops transformed landscape and society

  1. Rain forests of Ceylon converted to tea plantations

  2. Ceylonese women recruited to harvest tea

  3. Rubber plantations transformed Malaya and Sumatra

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Labor migrations

European migration

Indentured labor migration more typical from Asia, Africa, and Pacific islands

Large-scale migrations reflected global influence of imperialism

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European migration

  1. Fifty million Europeans migrated 1800-1914, over half to the United States

  2. Other settler colonies in Canada, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa

  3. Most European migrants became cultivators, herders, or skilled laborers

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Indentured labor migration more typical from Asia, Africa, and Pacific islands

  1. About 2.5 million indentured laborers globally during 1820-1914

  2. Indentured migrants tended to work on tropical and subtropical plantations

  3. Example: Indian laborers to Pacific island and Caribbean plantations

  4. Japanese laborers to Hawaiian sugar plantations

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Empire and society

Colonial conflict not uncommon in nineteenth century

"Scientific racism" popular in nineteenth century

Colonial experience only reinforced popular racism

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