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Heterotopic pregnancy

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190 Terms

1

Heterotopic pregnancy

Multiple gestations with one in uterine cavity and the other outside of the uterus

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Subchorionic Hemorrhage

Bleeding between uterine wall and chorion

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Anembryonic Pregnancy

When gestational sac forms without an embryo

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4

Abortion

Deliberate interruption of a pregnancy

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5

Miscarriage

Spontaneous or natural loss

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6

Complete abortion

Retained product of conception (RPOC) is expelled

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7

Incomplete abortion

Partial expulsion of RPOC

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8

Threatened abortion

Vaginal bleed with a closed cervix before 20 weeks

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9

Missed abortion

Fetal death & retained dead embryo

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Inevitable abortion

No chance of pregnancy survival. There is bleeding, gross rupture of the membrane & cervical dilation

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Habitual Abortion

More than 3 consecutive miscarriage

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12

Septic abortion

Spontaneous or induced that is complicated by uterine infection including endometritis

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13

Therapeutic abortion

Elective termination

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14

Normal placental thickness

Should be between 1.5-4cm

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15

Placenta previa

Partially or completely covers the internal OS ( 4 grades)

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False positives for placenta previa

  1. Maternal bladder too full

  2. Braxton hicks

  3. early pregnancy

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17

Abnormal placental attachment

Abnormal implantation of placental tissue (Chorionic villi) 3 types

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18

Accrete

Invades < 50 % of the way through the myometrium

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Increta

Invades more than 50% of the way through the myometrium

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20

Percreta

Placenta tissue extends through uterine wall to bladder and adjacent pelvic structures

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21

Succenturiate

AKA accessory placenta

Smaller accessory placental lobe that is separate to the main disc

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Bilobed placenta

Placenta that consists of two separate disc of equal size

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Circumvallate Placenta

Rolled or curled placenta edges

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Placenta abruption

Placenta separates from the inner wall of the uterus before birth causing hemorrhage

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25

Placental infarcts

AKA breus mole

large thrombus within subchorionic venous system due to obstructed venous flow

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26

Gestational trophoblastic disease

AKA molar pregnancy

Non cancerous tumor that develops on the uterus as a result of a non viable pregnancy.

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27

Hydatidiform (HM)

A rare mass or growth that forms Inside the womb at the beginning of a pregnancy type of GTD

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28

Complete HM

No fetal tissue. echogenic short tissue mass containing cystic spaces of varying size (snow storm)

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29

Partial/ incomplete HM

Some fetal tissue present. same as complete HM but with fetal tissue

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30

HM w/ co-existing fetus

very rare when one twin transformed into a molar gestation. the other fetus is normal.

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31

Chorioadenoma destruens

Type of cancer that grows into the muscular wall of the uterus ( invasive mole )

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32

Choriocarcinoma

A malignant, fast growing tumor that develops from trophoblastic cells

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33

Chorangioma

A rare tumor with frequency of about 1% which usually presents as a solitary nodule or less frequency as multiple nodules.

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34

Normal umbilical cord length

40-60 CM

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35

Short Umbilical cord

Less than 35CM

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36

Normal cord width

MX From 2.6-6.0 CM

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37

Omphalomesenteric cyst

AKA allantoic cyst

A cystic lesion of the umbilical cord

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38

Umbilical vein thrombosis

Blockage of the umbilical cord in the umbilical cord (Lethal)

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39

True knots of the cord

A knot in the baby’s umbilical cord can be single or multiple (rare condition can be seen as clover leaf pattern )

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40

False knots of the cord

kinks in the umbilical cord vessels any bulge or protuberance in the baby’s umbilical cord

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41

Nuchal cord

Cord wrapped around fetal neck

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42

Chordal attachments

Cord usually attaches near the center of the placenta

2 kinds

battledore cordal attachment

Velamentous cord insertion

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43

Battledore cordal attachments

AKA marginal cord insertion

Umbilical cord attached to the placenta margin

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44

Velamentous cord insertion

When cord inserts into membranes before it enters the placenta rather than directly into the placenta

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45

Vasa previa

When internal os is covered by the umbilical vessel

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46

Umbilical cord prolapse

When the umbilical cord falls into the birth canal ahead of the baby head or other parts of babys body

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47

Vessel cord

AKA bivascular cord, single umbilical artery

One umbilical artery & one umbilical vein

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48

Umbilical vein varix

Dilation of the umbilical vein

vein diameter > 9 mm

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49

Umbilical cord coiling

Makes umbilical cord flexible & strong provides resistance to the external force

Normal cord has 1 coil per 5 cm

Torsion or hyper coiling > 2 coils per 5cm

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50

Non- coiled umbilical cord

At risk for poor perinatal outcome

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51

poly hydramnios

AKA hydramnios

excessive fluid

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52

Oliogo hydramnios

Severely decreased fluid levels

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53

Anhydramnios

No fluid

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54

PROM

Premature rupture of the membrane

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55

Fetal hydros

AKA hydros fetalis

Condition where large amounts of fluid build up in the baby’s tissues and organs causing extensive swelling.

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56

Non- Immune Hydrops

Most common excessive accumulation of fetal fluid within the fetal extravascular compartments and baby cavities.

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57

Immune hydrops

AKA Erythroblastosis details/ isoimmunization

Mothers immune system causes babies red blood cells to break down.

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58

Amniotic band sequence/ syndrome

Pieces of the amnion membrane attached to the fetus causing defects

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59

Neural tube defects

Occurs when the embryonic neural tube fails to close

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Anencephaly

Baby is born without parts of the brain or skull (lethal)

frog like appearance

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61

Enencephaly

AKA Acrania

Partial or complete absence of the cranial vault. fetal cranium absent but fetal brain tissue os always present

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Cephalocele

Infant is born with gap in the skull

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Meningocele

Herniation of only membranes

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64

Encephalocele

Herniation of brain tissue and membranes

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65

Meningoencephalocele

Herniation of brain tissue, meninges & CSF ( cerebrospinal fluid)

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66

Spina bifida

Incomplete development of the spinal cord or coverings. cleft or opening in the spine.

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Most common location for spina bifida

Lumbosacral area

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68

2nd most common location for spina bifida

Cervical area

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69

Rachischisis

( Most serious for of SB)

Posterior neuropore of the neural tube fails to close resulting in a cleft through the spine.

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70

Spina bifida occulta

Mildest

Malformation of one or more of the vertebrae without apparent damage to the spinal cord

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71

Meningocele

A sac that pushes through the gap in the spine

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72

Myelomeningocele

( Most severe from of SB )

Part of the spinal cord itself protrudes through the back

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73

Arnold - Chiari Malfromation

Condition in which brain tissue extends into the spinal canal.

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74

Dandy - walker malformation DMW

Development deviation in the roof of the 4th ventricle and cerebellum.

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75

Holoprosencephally

Disorder caused by the failure of the prosencephalon ( the embryonic forebrain) to sufficiently divide into double lobes of the cerebral hemispheres

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76

Alobar Holoprosencephally

Most serious form where the brain has No tendency to separate is usually associated with facial abnormalities

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Semilobar holoprosencephaly

Brains hemispheres have a slight tendency to separate

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Lobar Holoprosencephaly

Nearly complete separation of the cerebral hemispheres

( Least severe)

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79

Aqueductal stenosis

Result from an obstruction atresia or stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius ( connects to the 3rd & 4th ventricles)

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80

Vein of Galen malformation (VGM)

Abnormal connections between arteries & the deep draining veins of the brain which develop before birth (Rare)

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81

Choroid plexus cyst

Often located in the atria of the lateral ventricles. Often seen 15-24 weeks & often resolves by 22-26 weeks

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82

Porencephaly

Extremely rare condition of the central nervous system involving a cyst or cavity in the cerebral hemisphere

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83

Schizencephaly

Cleft in the cerebral cortex

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84

Hydrancephaly

RARE Where the brains cerebral hemispheres are absent and replaced by sacs filled with cerebral spinal fluid

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85

Hydrocephalus

Build up of fluid in the cavities ( ventricles) deep with in the brain

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86

Lissencephaly

Smooth brain

condition where there is no gyro/sulci within the cerebral cortex

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87

Microcephaly

Small head

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88

Meckel - syndrome

Characterized by multiple cyst in the kidney, protrusion of a portion of the brain through an opening in the skull and extra fingers & or toes

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89

Scoliosis

S shaped spine abnormal lateral curvature

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90

kyphosis

Abnormal posterior curvature of the spine

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91

TORCH

Toxoplasmosis, rubellacytomggalovirus, herpes simplex & HIV

sometimes with an s- syphilis

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92

Fetal intracranial tumers

MOST COMMON

Teratoma that will distort the normal brain appearance

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93

Choroid plexus papillomas

Found with in the choroid plexus produces an increased production of CSF ( Cerebra spinal fluid ) can lead to venreicilomegaly

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94

Skeletal dysplasia

Term used to describe abnormal growth and density of the cartilage and bone

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95

Rhizomelia

Shortening of the proximal extremity

Humerus & Femur

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96

Mesomelia

Middle limb segment shortening ( radius, ulna, tibia, fibula)

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97

Acromelia

Distal extremity shortening ( phalanges and metacarpals )

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98

Phocomelia

Absent middle portion of the limb ( hand & feet attached to trunk )

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99

Thanatophoric displasia

one of the more common forms of lethal short limbed dwarfism seen

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100

Achondrogenesis

Rare type of growth hormone deficiency in which there is a defect in the development of bone & cartilage

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