mgmt exam 4

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

_____ is the overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to an organization and what the organization will provide in return. a. Psychological contract b. Negative emotionality c. Self-efficacy d. Locus of control

1 / 406

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

407 Terms

1

_____ is the overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to an organization and what the organization will provide in return. a. Psychological contract b. Negative emotionality c. Self-efficacy d. Locus of control

a. Psychological contract

New cards
2

Which of the following is true of contributions? a. They are not included in a psychological contract. b. They are what an organization provides to an individual. c. They include job security and recognition. d. They presumably satisfy various needs and requirements of an organization.

d. They presumably satisfy various needs and requirements of an organization.

New cards
3

Which of the following is an example of an inducement? a. Loyalty b. Ability c. Skill d. Status

d. Status

New cards
4

_____ is the relatively permanent set of psychological and behavioral attributes that distinguish one person from another. a. Image diversity b. Personality c. A psychological contract d. A collective mosaic

b. Personality

New cards
5

Which of the following is true of agreeableness? a. It is the number of things a person can effectively work on at one time. b. It allows people to have broad interests and to be curious, imaginative, and creative. c. It is the extent to which a person is poised, calm, resilient, and secure. d. It causes some people to be gentle, cooperative, and good-natured in their dealings with others.

d. It causes some people to be gentle, cooperative, and good-natured in their dealings with others.

New cards
6

Scott is an organized, responsible, and self-disciplined employee. He is able to work on multiple projects at a time and submit them error-free within deadlines. Based on this information and according to the "Big Five" personality traits, it can be said that Scott has high levels of _____. a. emotionality b. conscientiousness c. extraversion d. agreeableness

b. conscientiousness

New cards
7

_____ are complexes of beliefs and feelings that people have about specific ideas, situations, or other people. a. Attitudes b. Inducements c. Perceptions d. Individual differences

a. Attitudes

New cards
8

The conflict individuals experience among their own attitudes is called _____. a. risk propensity b. conscientiousness c. cognitive dissonance d. self-efficacy

c. cognitive dissonance

New cards
9

High levels of job satisfaction: a. lead to high levels of performance. b. are more common in Japan than in the United States. c. lead to more positive contributions. d. are not influenced by personal factors.

c. lead to more positive contributions.

New cards
10

Ralph is an employee at an e-retail company. When he was still new in the company, he came to work late on a regular basis and showed a lot of negligence in his work. As a result, his manager developed a very poor impression of him. Months later, even as Ralph's work showed improvement, his manager continued to overlook his efforts. This is due to _____. a. selective perception b. stereotyping c. negative emotionality d. cognitive dissonance

a. selective perception

New cards
11

_____ is the process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute. a. Prototyping b. Stereotyping c. Specifying d. Detailing

b. Stereotyping

New cards
12

The process of observing behavior and assigning causes to it is known as _____. a. attribution b. categorization c. stereotyping d. identification

a. attribution

New cards
13

_____ is an individual's response to a strong stimulus. a. Dissonance b. Machiavellianism c. Stress d. Attribution

c. Stress

New cards
14

Which of the following is the cycle of the stress process? a. General Adaptation Syndrome b. Selective perception c. Stressor Adaptive Syndrome d. Negative affectivity

a. General Adaptation Syndrome

New cards
15

In stage 2 of the General Adaptive Syndrome, a person: a. panics due to a stressor. b. ignores a stressor. c. resists the effects of a stressor. d. encounters a stressor.

c. resists the effects of a stressor.

New cards
16

The traits shared by most creative people: a. are openness and an attraction to complexity. b. are stress and dependency. c. are positive affectivity and dependency. d. are negative emotionality and an attraction to complexity.

a. are openness and an attraction to complexity.

New cards
17

_____ is a skill that allows people to see similarities among situations, phenomena, or events. a. Divergent thinking b. Convergent thinking c. Vertical thinking d. Cross-functional thinking

b. Convergent thinking

New cards
18

In the creative process, _____ represents a coming together of all the scattered thoughts and ideas that were maturing during incubation. a. insight b. delight c. verification d. preparation

a. insight

New cards
19

_____ is a pattern of action by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences organizational effectiveness. a. Positive affectivity b. General adaptation syndrome c. Workplace behavior d. Job satisfaction

c. Workplace behavior

New cards
20

Which of the following is true of performance behaviors? a. They can always be easily measured. b. They are not influenced by intuition. c. They can always be narrowly defined. d. They derive from the psychological contract.

d. They derive from the psychological contract.

New cards
21

Which of the following best describes organizational citizenship? a. It is the behavior of individuals that indicates the unwillingness to work beyond the basic standards of a job. b. It is the behavior of individuals that leads to increased turnover in an organization. c. It is the behavior of individuals that makes a positive overall contribution to an organization. d. It is the total set of work-related behaviors that an organization expects an individual to display.

c. It is the behavior of individuals that makes a positive overall contribution to an organization.

New cards
22

The overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return

Psychological Contract

New cards
23

What the individual provides to the organization

Contributions

New cards
24

What the organization provides to the individual

Inducements

New cards
25

The extent to which the contributions made by the individual match the inducements offered by the organization

Person-job Fit

New cards
26

Personal attributes that vary from one person to another

Individual Differences

New cards
27

The relatively permanent set of psychological and behavioral attributes that distinguish one person from another

Personality

New cards
28

A popular personality framework based on five key traits

"Big Five" Personality Traits

New cards
29

What are the "Big Five" Personality Traits

Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Negative Emotionality, Extraversion, and Openness

New cards
30

A person's ability to get along with others

Agreeableness

New cards
31

The number of things a person can effectively work on at one time

Conscientiousness

New cards
32

Extent to which a person is poised, calm, resilient, and secure

Negative Emotionality

New cards
33

A person's comfort level with relationships

Extraversion

New cards
34

A person's rigidity of beliefs and range of interests

Openness

New cards
35

The degree to which a person believes that his or her behavior has a direct impact on the consequences of that behavior

Locus of Control

New cards
36

An individual's beliefs about her or his capabilities to perform a task

Self-efficacy

New cards
37

The extent to which a person believes that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social systems like organizations

Authoritarianism

New cards
38

Behavior directed at gaining power and controlling the behavior of others

Machiavellianism

New cards
39

The extent to which a person believes that he or she is a worthwhile and deserving individual

Self-esteem

New cards
40

The degree to which an individual is willing to take chances and make risky decisions

Risk Propensity

New cards
41

The extent to which people are self-aware, manage their emotions, motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and possess social skills

emotional Intelligence

New cards
42

Complexes of beliefs and feelings that people have about specific ideas, situations, or other people

Attitudes

New cards
43

Caused when an individual has conflicting attitudes

Cognitive Dissonance

New cards
44

An attitude that reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified by or fulfilled in his or her work

Job Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction

New cards
45

An attitude that reflects a person's identification with and attachment to the organization itself

Organizational Commitment

New cards
46

The extent to which an employee sees him or herself as part of the organization, actively looks for ways to contribute to the organization, and is involved with the organization in multiple ways

Organizational Engagement

New cards
47

A tendency to be relatively upbeat and optimistic, have an overall sense of well-being, see things in a positive light, and seem to be in a good mood

Positive Affectivity

New cards
48

A tendency to be generally downbeat and pessimistic, see things in a negative way, and seem to be in a bad mood

Negative Affectivity

New cards
49

The set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about the environment

Perception

New cards
50

The process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts our beliefs

Selective Perception

New cards
51

The process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute

Stereotyping

New cards
52

The process of observing behavior and attributing causes to it

Attribution

New cards
53

A person's response to a strong stimulus, which is called a stressor

Stress

New cards
54

General cycle of the stress process

General Adaptation Syndrome

New cards
55

Stages of General Adaptation Syndrome

Alarm, Resistance, and Exhaustion

New cards
56

Individuals who are extremely competitive, very devoted to work, and have a strong sense of time urgency

Type A

New cards
57

Individuals who are less competitive, less devoted to work, and have a weaker sense of time urgency

Type B

New cards
58

The ability of an individual to generate new ideas or to conceive of new perspectives on existing ideas

Creativity

New cards
59

A pattern of action by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences organizational effectiveness

Workplace Behavior

New cards
60

The total set of work-related behaviors that the organization expects the person to display

Performance Behaviors

New cards
61

When a person does not show up for work

Absenteeism

New cards
62

When people quit their jobs

Turnover

New cards
63

The behavior of individuals that makes a positive overall contribution to the organization

Organizational Citizenship

New cards
64

Those that detract from, rather than contribute to, organizational performance

Dysfunctional Behaviors

New cards
65

Which of the following is true of inducements? a. They vr to the total number of years an employee invests in a company. b. They refer to the competencies an employee brings to an organization. c. They refer to what an organization provides to an individual. d. They refer to the business environment factors in an organization.

c. They refer to what an organization provides to an individual.

New cards
66

Which of the following best defines person-job fit? a. It is the extent to which a person is poised, calm, resilient, and secure. b. It is the relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguish one person from another. c. It is the overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to an organization and what the organization will provide in return. d. It is the extent to which the contributions made by an individual match the inducements offered by an organization.

d. It is the extent to which the contributions made by an individual match the inducements offered by an organization.

New cards
67

Which of the following is a reason for imprecise person-job fits. a. Both people and organizations change. b. Organizations hire new employees. c. Performance dimensions are difficult to measure in subjective ways. d. Employees expect a lot of favors from their managers.

a. Both people and organizations change.

New cards
68

Which of the following is a characteristic of extraverts? a. They are sociable, talkative, and assertive. b. They are willing to change their own ideas as a result of new information. c. They are disorganized, careless, and irresponsible. d. They are gentle, cooperative, forgiving, and understanding.

a. They are sociable, talkative, and assertive.

New cards
69

_____ refers to a person's rigidity of beliefs and range of interests. a. Extraversion b. Conscientiousness c. Agreeableness d. Openness

d. Openness

New cards
70

According to the Myers-Briggs framework, individuals of the _____ type enjoy the process and open-ended situations. a. thinking b. perceiving c. judging d. sensing

b. perceiving

New cards
71

_____ is an attitude that reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified by or fulfilled in his or her work. a. Cognitive dissonance b. Positive affectivity c. Organizational engagement d. Job satisfaction

d. Job satisfaction

New cards
72

Aiko's friends say that Aiko is always in a good mood. She is upbeat and optimistic and has an overall sense of well-being. Which of the following is true of Aiko? a. She has high levels of Machiavellianism. b. She has low risk propensity. c. She often experiences cognitive dissonance. d. She has a higher degree of positive affectivity.

d. She has a higher degree of positive affectivity.

New cards
73

_____ is an attitude that reflects an individual's identification with and attachment to an organization itself. a. Cognitive dissonance b. Job satisfaction c. Organizational engagement d. Organizational commitment

d. Organizational commitment

New cards
74

_____ is the set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about his or her environment. a. Transformation b. Repression c. Awareness d. Perception

d. Perception

New cards
75

Which of the following is true of stereotyping? a. It is an individual's response to a strong stimulus. b. It allows us to disregard minor bits of information. c. It depends on consensus and consistency. d. It can be efficient in certain forms.

d. It can be efficient in certain forms.

New cards
76

Which of the following is true of attribution? a. It is higher in people with more negative affectivity. b. It is formed around a framework of consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness. c. It is the process of categorizing people on the basis of a single attribute. d. It is the process of screening out information that one is uncomfortable with.

b. It is formed around a framework of consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness.

New cards
77

Which of the following is true of Type A individuals? a. They are extremely competitive and very devoted to work. b. They are less likely to experience conflict with other people. c. They work at a slow pace without time urgency. d. They are less likely to experience stress than Type B individuals.

a. They are extremely competitive and very devoted to work.

New cards
78

Julian is a top manager at a large pharmaceutical firm. His work requires him to make quick decisions, often with incomplete information. He is most likely to experience stress due to _____. a. interpersonal demands b. task demands c. physical demands d. role demands

b. task demands

New cards
79

Which of the following is an example of an interpersonal demand? a. The responsibility of making a critical work-related decision b. Insufficient supply of stationary and other tools required to perform a task c. Ambiguity about the tasks associated with a certain role d. Individuals with conflicting personalities being required to work together

d. Individuals with conflicting personalities being required to work together

New cards
80

_____ is a skill that allows people to see differences among situations, phenomena, or events. a. Cross-functional thinking b. Vertical thinking c. Convergent thinking d. Divergent thinking

d. Divergent thinking

New cards
81

Which of the following is true of the preparation stage of the creative process in business? a. It determines the validity or truthfulness of a creative insight. b. It is the stage during which a creative person achieves a new understanding of the problem. c. It includes the development of a product or service prototype. d. It usually requires formal training and education.

d. It usually requires formal training and education.

New cards
82

An employee at the research division of an automobile firm has an idea for a new type of alloy for the chassis of a car. A prototype of the car that uses this alloy will be developed during the _____ stage of the creative process. a. insight b. preparation c. verification d. incubation

c. verification

New cards
83

_____ are the total set of work-related behaviors that an organization expects an individual to display. a. Performance behaviors b. Task actions c. Interpersonal demands d. Role demands

a. Performance behaviors

New cards
84

Which of the following is true of turnover? a. It is never desirable. b. It decreases when unemployment is low. c. It can cost an organization. d. It has no relation to the labor market.

c. It can cost an organization.

New cards
85

Racial harassment is an example of: a. withdrawal behavior. b. dysfunctional behavior. c. avoidant behavior. d. performance behavior.

b. dysfunctional behavior.

New cards
86

Steps of the Creative Process

Preparation, Incubation, Insight, and Verification

New cards
87

a period of less intense conscious concentration during which the knowledge and ideas acquired during preparation mature and develop during the creative process

Incubation

New cards
88

spontaneous breakthrough in which the creative person achieves a new understanding of some problem or situation

Insight

New cards
89

determines the validity or truthfulness of the insight

Verification

New cards
90

stressors associated with the job setting

Physical Demands

New cards
91

stressors associated with relationships that confront people in organizations

Interpersonal Demands

New cards
92

This is the basis for the other components. It refers to a person's capacity for being aware of how they are feeling

Self-awareness

New cards
93

This refers to a person's capacities to balance anxiety, fear, and anger so that they do not overly interfere with getting things accomplished.

Managing emotions

New cards
94

This dimension refers to a person's ability to remain optimistic and to continue striving in the face of setbacks, barriers, and failure

Motivating Oneself

New cards
95

refers to a person's ability to understand how others are feeling, even without being explicitly told.

empathy

New cards
96

This refers to a person's ability to get along with others and to establish positive relationships.

Social Skill

New cards
97

Four dimensions of Myers-Briggs Framework

Extraversion v. Introversion, Sensing v. Intuition, Thinking v Feeling, and Judging v. Perceiving

New cards
98

Extraversion (E) Versus Introversion (I)

Extraverts get their energy from being around other people, whereas introverts are worn out by others and need solitude to recharge their energy.

New cards
99

Sensing (S) Versus Intuition (N).

The sensing type prefers concrete things, whereas intuitives prefer abstract concepts.

New cards
100

Thinking (T) Versus Feeling (F).

Thinking individuals base their decisions more on logic and reason, whereas feeling individuals base their decisions more on feelings and emotions.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 39 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 82 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 120 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard89 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 129 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard43 terms
studied byStudied by 26 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 109 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard93 terms
studied byStudied by 161 people
Updated ... ago
4.6 Stars(8)