EGGS 100 Exam 1

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John Muir

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131 Terms

1

John Muir

preservation ethic, father of national park service

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2

Marie Curie

scientific discovery

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3

Benjamin Banneker

mathematician astronomer

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4

Gifford Pinchot

conservation ethic, father of forestry in US

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5

Rachel Carson

investigation writer, DDT

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6

Aldo Leopold

land ethic, father of wildlife ecology in US

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7

preservation

to set aside and appreciate

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8

conservation

the greatest good for the greatest number in the long run

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9

Garrett Hardin

"tragedy of the commons" 1968, unregulated exploitation causes resource depletion

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10

applications of science

policy decisions, management practices, technology

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11

relativists

ethics varies with social context

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12

universalists

right and wrong remain the same across cultures and situations

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13

anthropocentrism

only humans have rights and value

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14

biocentrism

certain living things also have value

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15

ecocentrism

whole ecological systems have value

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16

environmental ethics

application of ethical standards to relationships between human and non-human entities

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17

environmental justice

the fair treatment of all people with the respect to the environment, regardless of race, income, or ethnicity

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18

sustainable development

using resources to satisfy current needs without compromising future ability or resources

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19

argue

to give reasons in support or contest a measure or opinion

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20

debate

to discuss or argue about as in a public meeting

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21

compromise

an adjustment or concession between conflicting courses, ideas, or desires

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22

system

a network of relationships among components that interact with and influence one another, exchange of energy, matter, or information

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23

ecosystem

all organisms and non-living entities ocuring and interacting in a particular area

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24

positive feedback

something that happens in a system that keeps the system going

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25

negative feedback

something that happens in a system that either slows it down or stops it

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26

eutrophication process

nitrogen input, phytoplankton flourish, phytoplankton die and drift to bottom providing food for decomposers, decomposers grow and consume more oxygen, insufficient oxygen suffocates fish and shrimp at the bottom, dead zone forms

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27

hypoxia

low oxygen

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28

energy

an intangible phenomenon that can change the position , physical composition, or temp of matter

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29

potential energy

energy of position

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30

kinetic energy

energy of motion

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31

chemical energy

potential energy held in the bonds between atoms

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32

first law of thermodynamics

energy can change forms but cannot be created or destroyed

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33

second law of thermodynamics

the nature of energy changes from a more-ordered to a less-ordered state id no force counteracts this tendency

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34

entropy

an increasing state of disorder

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35

chemical equation of fire

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 = 6 CO2 + 6 H2O

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36

fire regime

fire is natural and could potentially occur at any time if conditions are right

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37

solar energy

what is stored in chemical bonds by plants during growth that is restored to atmosphere during fires

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38

fuel, O2, heat

what are the necessities for a fire

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39

one

how many necessities for a fire do you have to remove to stop a fire

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40

pre-heating

heating up to make a fire easier to cstch

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41

fire takes out competition, use the ash as fertilizer, when pinecones feel heat they drop seeds which plants more trees in the newly opened space

how do certain species of trees benefit from fires

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42

agriculture

practice of raising crops and livestock for human use and consumption

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43

traditional agriculture

agriculture using human and animal muscle power, hand tools, and simple machines

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44

industrialized agriculture

using large-scale mechanization and fossil fuels to boost yields, as well as pesticides, irrigation, and fertilizers

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45

mismanaged agriculture

what in agriculture turns grasslands into deserts, removes forests, diminishes biodiversity, and pollutes soil, air, and eater

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46

36-38%

how much of land dedicated to agriculture covers earth's surface

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47

cropland

land used to raise plants for human use

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48

rangeland or pasture

land used for grazing livestock

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49

soil

a plant-supporting system consisting of disintegrated rock, organic matter, air, gasses, and nutrients with dead or living microorganisms and decaying materials

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50

new farming

farming with new machinery, bigger farms and land, higher volume and commercial farming, use of chemicals

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51

old farming

farming with handheld equipment, irrigation using weather and water buckets, manual labor, small family run farms, easier to check products, organic food

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52

parent material

the base geologic material of soil- lava, volcanic ash, rock, dunes, river sediments

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53

bedrock

the continuous mass of solid rock that makes up Earth's crust

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54

weathering

physical, chemical, or biological processes that break down rocks to form soil

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55

horizion

each layer of soil

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56

soil profile

the cross-section of soil as a whole

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57

o horizion

organic soil layer composed of leaf litter, grown organisms and chemicals

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58

a horizion

topsoil composed of organic and nonorganic material, most nutritive for plants

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59

e horizion

eluviated (leaching layer) composed of nutrients from topsoil deposit

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60

b horizion

subsoil layer

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61

c horizion

weathered parent material

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62

r horizion

rock (plant material)

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63

4 conditions for plant growth

pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium

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64

pH

degree of acidity or alkalinity

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65

nitrogen

stimulates above ground growth, produces rich green color of healthy vegetation

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66

phosphorus

limiting factor (in short supply), stimulates farley root formation, jump starts plant growth

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67

potassium

plant vigor, disease resistance, strong plant structure, chlorophyll development

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68

fertilizer

substances that contain essential nutrients

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69

inorganic fertilizer

mined or synthetically manufactured mineral supplements

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70

organic fertilizer

the remains of wastes of organisms such as manure, crop residues, fresh vegetation

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71

compost

produced by decomposition of organic matter

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72

topsoil

what kind of soil is vital for agriculture

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73

loam

soil with an even mixture of pore and particle size

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74

color, texture, structure, and pH

what do scientists use to classify soils?

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75

soil conservation act

passed in 1935, works with farmers to develop conservation plans for farmers, serves as a model for similar efforts elsewhere

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76

crop rotation

Alternating the crops grown from one season or year to the next, minimizes erosion and pest damage

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77

contour farming

farming that involves plowing furrows sideways across a hillside perpendicular to its slope to prevent gullies

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78

terracing

level platforms are cut into steep hillsides, sometimes with raised edges and a staircase to contain water

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79

intercropping

planting different types of crops in alternating bands or other spatially mixed arrangements, increases ground cover

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80

shelterbelts/windbreaks

rows of trees or other tall perennial plants planted along edges of fields to slow the wind

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81

no/low till farming

farming where furrows are cut in the soul, a seed is dropped in, and the furrow is closed

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82

irrigation

the artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops.

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83

grand coolie dam

dam built for hydroelectricity and irrigation

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84

water-logging

over-irrigated soils

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85

salinization

the buildup of salts in surface soil layers, worse in arid areas and inhibits production

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86

drip irrigation

using a hose to drip water to the roots of each plant, prevents salinization

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87

undernourishment

people receive not enough calories

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88

malnourishment

people receiving too few nutrients in food

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89

overnutrition

people receiving too many calories each day

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90

food security

the guarantee of an adequate and reliable food supply for all people at all times

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91

monoculture

the uniform planting of a single crop

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92

green revolution

the use of technology to dramatically increase crop output

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93

synthetic fertilizers, chemical pesticides, irrigation, heavy equipment

the green revolution is dependent on large amounts of what

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94

pest

any organism that damages valuable crops

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95

weed

any plant that competes with crops

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96

pesticides

poisons that target pest organisms

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97

insecticides

poisons that target insects

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98

herbicides

poisons that target plants

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99

fungicides

poisons that target fungi

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100

1600 C or 2912 F

what was the temp around the narrator in his fire suit

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