AP Biology Unit 1, AP Bio Unit 2: Cell transport, Ap bio Unit 3: cellular energetics

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155 Terms

1

Hydrophilic

water loving (soluble in water)

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Hydroxyl Group

-OH

<p>-OH</p>
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Carboxyl Group

-COOH

<p>-COOH</p>
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Amino Group

-NH2

<p>-NH2</p>
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Macromolecules

Large molecules such as: carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids

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Polymers

a large molecule consisting of many monomers linked together

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Monomers

one of the repeating parts of a polymer

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dehydration synthesis

a reaction that removes water and combines monomers into polymers

<p>a reaction that removes water and combines monomers into polymers</p>
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Hydrolysis

a reaction where adding water breaks up a polymer into monomers

<p>a reaction where adding water breaks up a polymer into monomers</p>
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Enzymes

specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells

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Carbohydrate

molecules ranging from the small sugar molecules to large polysaccharides like starches

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Starch

a storage molecule used by plants

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Glycogen

Molecule made by animals to store glucose

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Hydrophobic

water fearing

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Unsaturated Fatty Acid

fatty acid containing one or more double bonds - not saturated with Hydrogen

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Saturated Fatty Acid

fatty acid containing only single bonds - full of hydrogens

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Phospholipids

contain a phosphate group and attach to 2 fatty acids rather than three - makes cell membranes

<p>contain a phosphate group and attach to 2 fatty acids rather than three - makes cell membranes</p>
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Steroids

lipids containing 4 fused carbon rings

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Cholesterol

component in cell membranes - comes from animal fats

<p>component in cell membranes - comes from animal fats</p>
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Protein

a molecule made of amino acids

<p>a molecule made of amino acids</p>
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Amino Acids

Monomers (building blocks) of proteins; amino group, hydrogen, and carboxylic acid group

<p>Monomers (building blocks) of proteins; amino group, hydrogen, and carboxylic acid group</p>
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Peptide Bond

covalent linkage between peptides to form a poly peptide

<p>covalent linkage between peptides to form a poly peptide</p>
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Polypeptide

a polymer made of peptides

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DNA

genetic inheritance polymer - Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid

<p>genetic inheritance polymer - Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid</p>
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Are most carbohydrates are hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophilic

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Are fats and lipids are hydrophilic or hydrophibic?

hydrophobic

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Denaturation

proteins or enzymes, lose their specific shape, and changes its function

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Nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

<p>monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base</p>
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Contains C, H, O

Carbohydrates and lipids

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Contains C, H, O, N, and sometimes S

Proteins

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Contains C, H, O, N, and P

Nucleic Acids

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Primary Structure

The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.

<p>The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.</p>
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Secondary Structure

The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.

<p>The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.</p>
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Tertiary Structure

The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.

<p>The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.</p>
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Quaternary structure

The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.

<p>The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.</p>
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peptide

Short chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds

<p>Short chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds</p>
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Lipids

Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

<p>Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.</p>
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buffer

A solution that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.

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proton donors

Acids are

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proton acceptors

bases are

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acidosis

pH below 7.35

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Alkalosis

pH above 7.45

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nucleotides

Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases

<p>Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases</p>
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Triglycerides

three fatty acids attached to a glycerol

<p>three fatty acids attached to a glycerol</p>
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glycerol

A three-carbon alcohol to which fatty acids are covalently bonded to make fats and oils.

<p>A three-carbon alcohol to which fatty acids are covalently bonded to make fats and oils.</p>
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disulfide bridges

A strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer.

<p>A strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer.</p>
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allosteric inhibitor

binds to the enzyme and induces the enzyme's inactive form

<p>binds to the enzyme and induces the enzyme's inactive form</p>
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hydrogen bonds

Very weak bonds; occurs when a hydrogen atom in one molecule is attracted to the electrostatic atom in another molecule

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bonds weakest to strongest

van der waals, hydrogen, ionic, covalent

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water adhesion

water molecules stick to other kinds of substances (H bonding)

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water cohesion

water molecules stick to each other (H bonding)

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specific heat

The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius

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evaporative cooling

The process in which the surface of an object becomes cooler during evaporation, a result of the molecules with the greatest kinetic energy changing from the liquid to the gaseous state.

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nucleic acids

macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus

DNA and RNA

<p>macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus</p><p>DNA and RNA</p>
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hydrocarbon

An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.

<p>An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.</p>
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Monosaccharides

Single sugar molecules

glucose, fructose, galactose

<p>Single sugar molecules</p><p>glucose, fructose, galactose</p>
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Disaccharide

A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.

<p>A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.</p>
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Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides

<p>Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides</p>
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glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues.

<p>the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues.</p>
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fructose

a hexose sugar found especially in honey and fruit.

<p>a hexose sugar found especially in honey and fruit.</p>
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Galactose

a monosaccharide and has the same chemical formula as glucose

<p>a monosaccharide and has the same chemical formula as glucose</p>
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structural isomers

Two different molecules that have the same chemical formula

<p>Two different molecules that have the same chemical formula</p>
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glycogen

An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.

<p>An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.</p>
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amine

nitrogen compound

<p>nitrogen compound</p>
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ketone

R-C=O-R

<p>R-C=O-R</p>
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aldehyde

An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.

<p>An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.</p>
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ether

have no hydrogen atom on the oxygen atom (that is, no OH group) R-O-R

<p>have no hydrogen atom on the oxygen atom (that is, no OH group) R-O-R</p>
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alcohol

organic molecules assembled from carbon (C), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H) atoms.

<p>organic molecules assembled from carbon (C), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H) atoms.</p>
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carboxylic acid

any of a class of organic compounds in which a carbon (C) atom is bonded to an oxygen (O) atom by a double bond and to a hydroxyl group (―OH) by a single bond

<p>any of a class of organic compounds in which a carbon (C) atom is bonded to an oxygen (O) atom by a double bond and to a hydroxyl group (―OH) by a single bond</p>
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selective permeability

A property of a plasma membrane that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.

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nuclear membrane

A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm

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fluid mosaic model

model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane

<p>model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane</p>
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Glycoprotein

A protein with one or more carbohydrates covalently attached to it.

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Glycolipid

a lipid with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates

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facilitated diffusion

the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins

ex. glucose transport

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aquaporin

A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that facilitates the passage of water through channel proteins.

<p>A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that facilitates the passage of water through channel proteins.</p>
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Compartmentalization

Membrane-bound organelles allow different parts of the cell to perform different functions at the same time

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prokaryotic cell

A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.

<p>A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.</p>
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eurokaryotic cell

unicellular organism with membrane-bound nucleus and organelles

<p>unicellular organism with membrane-bound nucleus and organelles</p>
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water potential

The physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure.

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water potential formula

Ψ = Ψs + Ψp

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osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane; from a high concentration of water to a low concentration of water

<p>Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane; from a high concentration of water to a low concentration of water</p>
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solute potential (ΨS)

iCRT

i= ionization constant

C= concentration in molarity

R= pressure constant -> 0.0831

T= temperature in K ( ___ C +273)

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active transport

Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference

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isotonic

when the concentration of two solutions is the same

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hypertonic

Having a higher concentration of solute than another solution.

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osomotic pressure

measure of the tendency for a solution to take up water when separated from pure water by a selectively permeable membrane; can be described as the amount of pressure required to prevent net movement of water into the solution

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hypotonic

when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes

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Endocytosis

process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane

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Exocytosis

a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.

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Co-transport

The transport of one substance coupled with the transport of another substance across a plasma membrane in the same direction through the same protein carrier.

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phagosome

Intracellular vesicle containing material taken up by phagocytosis.

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phagocytosis

A type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells

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Integral Proteins

penetrate the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer

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peripheral proteins

The proteins of a membrane that are not embedded in the lipid bilayer; they are appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane.

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lysed cell

Animal Cell that has burst in a high solute, low solvent environment

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turgid cell

a plant cell that has absorbed water and has cytoplasm that is pressing outwards on the cell wall

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flaccid cell

cell that lack water; is soft; causes plants to droop; closed stoma. If placed in higher solute concentration will undergo plasmolysis.

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plasmolyzed cell

Plant cell that has been dehydrated

-Occurs when cell is placed in a hypertonic solution

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electrochemical gradient

The diffusion gradient of an ion, representing a type of potential energy that accounts for both the concentration difference of the ion across a membrane and its tendency to move relative to the membrane potential.

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