bio exam #2

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tissue

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180 Terms

1

tissue

a collection of cells of the same type that perform a common function

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2

4 types of tissue

connective, muscular, nervous, epithelial

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3

connective tissue

binds and supports tissue parts

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4

muscular tissue

moves the body and its parts

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5

nervous tissue

conducts nerve impulses

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6

epithelial tissue

covers body surfaces; lines body cavities

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7

three components of connective tissue

specialized cells, ground substance, and protein fibers

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8

ground substance

noncellular material between the cells

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9

three types of protein fibers

collagen, reticular, and elastic fibers

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10

collagen fibers

flexible and strong

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11

reticular fibers

thin, highly branched collagen fibers

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12

elastic fibers

contain elastin, a protein that stretches and recoils

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13

three types of connective tissue

fibrous, supportive, and fluid

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14

fibrous connective tissue; two forms

loose and dense

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15

loose fibrous connective tissue

includes areolar connective tissue, reticular connective tissue, and adipose tissue

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16

dense fibrous connective tissue

found in tendons and ligaments

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17

t/f loose fibrous connective tissue supports epithelium and many internal organs

true

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18

two major types of supportive connective tissue

cartilage and bone

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19

3 cartilage types

hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage

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20

hyaline cartilage

fine collagen fibers; found in the tip of the nose, ends of long bones and the fetal skeleton

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21

elastic cartilage

lots of elastic fibers; found in the outer ear

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22

fibrocartilage

strong collagen fibers; found in the disks between vertebrae

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23

t/f bone is the most rigid connective tissue

true

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24

two types of bone tissue

compact and spongy

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25

compact bone

makes up the shafts of long bones; bone cells are located in lacunae

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26

spongy bone

inside the ends of long bones; lighter than compact bone, but strong

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27

two types of fluid connective tissue

blood and lymph

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28

blood

made of a fluid matrix called plasma and cellular components called formed elements

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29

red blood cells (erythrocytes)

cells that carry oxygen

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30

white blood cells (leukocytes)

cells that fight infection

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31

platelets (thrombocytes)

pieces of cells that clot blood

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32

lymph

derived from the fluid surrounding the tissues; contains white blood cells

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33

t/f muscular tissue isn't specialized to contract

false

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34

three types of muscular tissue

skeletal, smooth, and cardiac

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35

skeletal muscle

attached to the skeleton by tendons; voluntarily controlled

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36

t/f muscle fibers have multiple nuclei

true

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37

are muscle fibers striated (striped) or dotted in appearance

striated

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38

smooth muscle

no striations, spindle-shaped cells with one nucleus; involuntarily controlled

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39

cardiac muscle

found only in the walls of the heart; striated; involuntary; single nucleus; connected by intercalated disks

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40

nervous tissue is made of what

neurons nad neuroglia

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41

three primary functions of nervous tissue

sensory input, integration, and motor output

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42

neuron parts

dendrites, a cell body, and an axon

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43

what do dendrites do in a neuron

carry information toward the cell body

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44

what does the cell body do in a neuron

contains the nucleus and other organelles

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45

what does the axon do in a neuron

conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body

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46

nerves

bundles of axons traveling to and from the brain and spinal cord

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47

neuroglia

outnumber neurons 9:1; take up more than half the volume of the brain

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48

what is the neuroglia's main function

support and nourish neurons

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49

why are neuroglia important

help with learning and memory

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50

epithelium

made of tightly packed cells; either simple or stratified

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51

simple epithelium

single layer of cells

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52

stratified epithelium

multiple layers of cells

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53

simple squamous epithelium

single layer of flattened cells; found in the lungs

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54

simple cuboidal epithelium

single layer of cube-shaped cells

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55

simple columnar epithelium

single layer of column-shaped cells

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56

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

appears stratified but every cell touches the basement membrane

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57

stratified epithelia

several layers of cells

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58

stratified squamous epithelia

forms the outer layer of the skin and lines the mouth & esophagus

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59

transitional epithelia

cells change shape in response to tension

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60

glands

one or more cells that make and secrete a product

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61

two types of glands

exocrine and endocrine

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62

exocrine glands

secrete into ducts

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63

endocrine glands

secrete into the bloodstream; have no ducts

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64

integumentary system

includes the skin and accessory organs such as hair, nails, and glands

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65

functions of the integumentary system

protects underlying tissues from trauma, pathogen invasion, and water loss; helps regulate body temperature; contains sensory receptors; makes us aware of our surroundings

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66

t/f the integumentary system only includes two types of tissues

false

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67

what are the two main regions of skin

epidermis and dermis

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68

what layer is under the skin

subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)

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69

epidermis

thin, outermost layer of the skin; made of stratified squamous epithelium

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70

autograft

skin from another area of the body

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71

allograft

skin from another person

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72

what are the cells of the epidermis

keratinocytes, langerhans cells, melanocytes

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73

keratinocytes

upper layer of epidermis; dead and filled with keratin; waterproof barrier

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74

langerhans cells

a type of white blood cell

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melanocytes

produce melanin; produces skin color and protects from UV light

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76

skin cancer

caused by ultraviolet rays from the sun

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77

basal cell carcinoma

cancer of the epidermal stem cells; most common type of skin cancer

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78

melanoma

cancer of melanocytes; extremely serious

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79

dermis

thick, inner layer of the skin; made of dense fibrous connective tissue

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80

subcutaneous layer

includes hypodermis; composed of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue to store energy, insulate and protect

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81

t/f the subcutaneous layer is technically not part of the skin

true

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82

accessory organs of the skin

nails, hair, and glands

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83

nails

offer a protective covering; grow from the nail root to cover the nail bed; cuticle covers the nail root

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84

hair

follicles & shaft; color comes from melanin

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85

hair follicles

epidermal structures that surround the hair itself

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86

hair shaft

the portion of hair protruding from the skin

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87

arrector pili muscles

attached to the hair follicle

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88

t/f goosebumps come from the arrector pili muscles contracting

true

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89

oil glands

produce sebum; acne

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90

sweat glands (sudoriferous glands)

in the dermis; help regulate body tempurature

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91

organ

a group of tissues performing a common function

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92

groups of organs with a similar function form an...

organ system

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93

two types of body cavities

ventral and dorsal

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94

ventral cavity

contains the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities; thoracic and abdominal are separated by the diaphragm

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95

dorsal cavity

contains the cranial and vertebral cavity

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96

body membranes

line cavities and the internal spaces of organs and tubes that open to the outside

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97

four types of body membranes

mucous, serous, synovial membranes, and the meninges

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98

mucous membranes

line the tubes of the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems; composed of epithelium overlying loose fibrous connective tissue

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99

what do mucous membranes do

protect from bacteria; protect stomach from burning; secrete mucus

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100

serous membranes

line closed cavities and cover the surface of the organs contained within; pleurae, pericardium, peritoneum

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