AP PSYCH EXAM REVIEW (UNITS 1-4)

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Structuralism

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264 Terms

1

Structuralism

an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind (promoted by Wundt)

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Gestalt Psychology

a psychological approach that emphasizes our tendency to to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.

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Functionalism

A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish (promoted by William James)

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Behavioral Approach

An approach to psychology emphasizing the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants.

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humanistic approach

An approach to psychology emphasizing human need for self-fulfillment, a person's positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose any destiny.

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Cognitive Approach

An approach to psychology emphasizing the mental processes involved in knowing: how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems.

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Biological Approach

an approach to psychology focusing on the body, especially the brain and nervous system

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8

Social-Cultural Approach

An approach to psychology focusing on how situations and cultures affect behavior and thinking.

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9

Evolutionary Approach

An approach to psychology centered on evolutionary ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors.

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10

Psychoanalytic Approach

An approach to psychology created by Sigmund Freud and emphasized the impact of unconscious forces on behaviors and thoughts. This theory also proposed that individuals are primarily driven by sexual and aggressive tendencies.

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Biopsychosocial Approach

an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

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12

experimental method

A method of investigation used to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor.

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Independent variable

The variable that you give

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Dependent variable

The variable that you "get"

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15

Experimental group

In an experiment, the group that is subject to the IV

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Control group

In an experiment, the group that is not subject to the IV

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Random Assignment

Randomly picking and placing people to be in control or experimental group. Prevents bias or uneven groups.

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18

double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.

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19

Placebo

a fake drug used in the testing of medication

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20

Placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

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21

correlational study

a research project designed to discover the degree to which two variables are related to each other

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positive correlation

two variables change in the same direction, both becoming either larger or smaller

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negative correlation

as one variable increases, the other decreases

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24

survey

having people answer a series of questions

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25

Naturalistic Observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

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26

Case study

an in-depth study of a single person or group to reveal some universal principle

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27

longitudinal study

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

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28

cross-sectional study

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

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29

confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

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participant bias

a tendency for research participants to respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed, or they believe they know what the researcher wants

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Population

all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn

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Random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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operational definition

a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in a research study

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confounding variable

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment

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Hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

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36

Overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.

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replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

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38

illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists

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39

mode

the number that appears most frequently

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40

mean

average

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median

Middle number

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42

statistical significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

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43

standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

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correlation coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)

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45

5 Major Ethical Guidelines

  1. Approved by Institutional Review Board

  2. Informed Consent

  3. Confidentiality/Anonymity

  4. No physical/emotional harm (must be kept to minimum)

  5. Debriefing

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46

American Psychological Association (APA)

professional organization representing psychologists in the United States

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Insitutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)

committee of administrators, scientists, veterinarians, and community members that reviews proposals for research involving non-human animals

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48

empiricism

the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation

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49

range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

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50

skewed distribution

a representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average value

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51

dendrites of neuron

receives signals from other cells

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52

soma

cell body of a neuron

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axon

A threadlike extension of a neuron that transfers signals to other cells and organs

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myelin sheath

covers the axon of some neurons and increases the speed of the signal

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axon terminal

The endpoint of a neuron where junctions with other cells are formed

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terminal buttons (axon terminals)

ends of axons that secrete neurotransmitters

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57

action potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

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Threshold

amount needed in order for neuron to fire

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refractory period

a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired

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resting potential

the charge being built up in order for neuron to fire

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all-or-none principle

Refers to the fact that the action potential in the axon occurs either full-blown or not at all.

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synaptic gap

space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the receptors of the next neuron where neurotransmitters are released

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sensory neurons

neurons that carry incoming information from the environment from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

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Interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

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motor neurons

neurons in the brain and spinal cord that allow us to move, speak, swallow and breathe by sending commands from the brain to the muscles that carry out these functions

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Neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that control different thigs in the brain

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receptors

end of dendrites that receive neurotransmitters

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excitatory effect

a neurotransmitter effect that makes it more likely that the receiving neuron will generate an action potential or "fire"

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inhibitory effect

a neurotransmitter effect that makes it less likely that a receiving neuron will generate an action potential or "fire"

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70

Antagonist

drugs that bind to synaptic receptors and decrease the effect of the neurotransmitter

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71

agonists

drugs that that bind to synaptic receptors and increase the effect of the neurotransmitter

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72

Acetylcholine (ACh)

The Learning neurotransmitter; Enables muscle action, learning and memory (decreased ACh production - Alzheimer's)

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73

Dopamine

The pleasure neurotransmitter; influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion (under supply - depression, oversupply - schizophrenia)

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Serotonin

The mood neurotransmitter; Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal (undersupply - depression)

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Norepinephrine

helps control alertness and arousal (undersupply - depressed mood)

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GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)

a major inhibitory neurotransmitter (undersupply - seizures, tremors, and insomnia)

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Glutamate

The memory neurotransmitter; excitatory neurotransmitter involved in memory (oversupply - can overstimulate brain causing migraines or seizures)

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Adrenaline

The fight or flight neurotransmitter; hormone produced in high stress or exciting situations; leads to physical boost and heightened awareness

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79

Endorphins (20+ Types in Human Body)

The Euphoria neurotransmitters; Neurotransmitters that influence the perception of pain or pleasure (oversupply with opiate drugs can suppress body's natural endorphin supply)

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80

Central Nervous System (CNS)

the body's processing center; consists of the brain and spinal cord

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81

spinal cord

sends info. from body to brain and brain to body

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peripheral nervous system

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body

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83

autonomic nervous system

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.

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sympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the body in stressful situations

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parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

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somatic nervous system

controls voluntary muscle movements; sensory neurons send messages to CNS and motor neurons send message back out from CNS

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87

brainstem

Where spinal cord enters the skull; regulates most the bodies automatic functions

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88

Cerebellum

coordinates voluntary movement (walking, balance); helps with nonverbal learning and memory

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Medulla

controls heartbeat and breathing

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90

reticular formation

a nerve network in the brainstem; filters and relays sensory info. to other parts of brain; helps control arousal (waking up)

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91

pons

the part of the brainstem that links brain to spinal cord; in control of sleep/e\wake cycle and breathing; merging point between brain and face (controlling of facial muscles

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92

Limbic system

the emotional brain; neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres (consists of amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus)

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Thalamus

joined par of egg shapes; brains sensory switchboard; receives info. from all senses except smell and routes to higher brain regions

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Hypothalamus (Limbic System)

located in brain and controls your endocrine system; Determines when to tell glands to produce hormones; controls mood, hunger/thirst, sleep patterns, sexual functions

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95

Hippocampus (limbic system)

conscious memories; consolidation of memories

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96

Amygdala (Limbic System)

neural center that influence (perception of) fear, anger, aggression; processing of emotions, memories

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cerebral cortex

the thin layer of neurons covering the outer surface of the cerebral hemispheres

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98

corpus callosum

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

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99

split brain research

-study of patients with severed corpus callosum -involves sending messages to only one side of the brain -demonstrates right and left brain specialization

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frontal lobe

behind forehead; Speaking, making judgements/plans

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