anatomy midterm

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Abdominal

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138 Terms

1

Abdominal

anterior body trunk inferior to ribs

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Acromial

point of shoulder

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Antebrachial

forearm

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antecubital

anterior surface of elbow

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axillary

armpit

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brachial

arm

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buccal

cheek area

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8

carpal

wrist

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cephalic

head

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calcneal

heel of foot

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11

cervical

neck region

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12

coxal

hip

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13

crural

anterior leg; the shin

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14

deltoid

curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscle

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15

digital

fingers, toes

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16

dorsal

back

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femoral

thigh (applies to both anterior and posterior)

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fibular

lateral part of leg

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19

frontal

forehead

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20

genital

reproductive organs

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21

gluteal

buttock

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22

Inguinal

Area where thigh meets body trunk; grain

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23

Lumbar

Area of back between the ribs and hips; the loin

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24

Mental

chin

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Nasal

nose area

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26

occipital

posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull

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27

oral

mouth

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28

orbital

eye area

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29

Olecranal

posterior surface of elbow

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30

patellar

anterior knee

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31

popliteal

posterior knee area

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32

pelvic

area overlying the pelvis anteriorly

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33

pubic

genital region

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34

Tarsal

ankle region

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35

thoracic

area between the neck and abdomen, supported by the ribs, sternum and costal cartilages; chest

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Sacral

area between hips at base of spine

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37

sternal

breastbone area

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38

scapular

shoulder blade region

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39

umbilical

navel

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40

sural

the posterior surface of leg; the calf

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41

vertebral

area of spinal column

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42

Organ system

Group of organs working together

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43

Tissue

Group of similar cells working together

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44

Organ

Different types of tissues working together

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45

organelles

Specialized structures in cell

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46

cell

Structural unit of all living things

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47

4 types of tissue

epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

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48

simple squamous (definition, locations, function)

tissue with a single layer of flat (squamous) cells

L: lungs, capillaries (forms membranes)

F: diffusion, filtration, or secretion in membranes

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49

simple cuboidal (definition, locations, functions)

tissue with a single layer of cube-like (cuboidal) cells

L: glands, kidney tubules

F: secretion and absorption; ciliated types propel mucus or reproductive cells

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50

Simple Columnar (definition, locations, functions)

tissue with a single layer of tall (columnar) cells; Goblet cells secrete mucus

L: digestive tract

F: secretion and absorption; ciliated types propel mucus or reproductive cells

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51

pseudostratified columnar (definition, locations, functions)

Single layer, but some cells are shorter than others giving a false (pseudo) impression of stratification

L: respiratory tract

F: absorption or secretion

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52

stratified squamous epithelium

tissue formed by more than 1 layer of epithelial cells; squamous cells are at the apical (free) surface

F: protective covering

L: lining of the: Skin (outer portion) Mouth Esophagus

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53

stratified cuboidal function/location/definition

two layers of cuboidal cells; functions in protection

Rare in human body Found mainly in ducts of large glands

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54

stratified columnar function/location/definition

surface cells are columnar, and cells underneath vary in size and shape; functions in protection

Rare in human body Found mainly in ducts of large glands

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55

transitional epithelium

modified stratified squamous epithelium that stretches; located in urinary bladder

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56

glandular epithelium

located in glands, secrete things

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57

connective tissue

most abundant and widely distributed tissue in the body

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58

ct functions

Provides protection Binds body tissues together Supports the body

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59

bone (definition, location, function)

composed of osteocytes in lacunea cavities (osseous tissue), located in bones, protects/supports body

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60

hyaline cartilage (definition, location, function)

most widespread type of cartilage, has abundant collagen fibers

larynx, fetal skeleton before birth

flexible; protects/supports body

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61

fibrocartilage (definition, location, function)

most compressible type of cartilage, forms cushion-like discs between vertebrae of spinal column, protects spinal column

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62

elastic cartilage (definition, location, function)

cartilage CT with many elastic fibers

found in structures with elasticity, external ear, supports body parts and provides elasticity

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63

dense fibrous connective tissue (definition, location, function)

Main matrix element is collagen fiber Fibroblasts are cells that make fibers Anytime you see rows or sheets of fibers

tendons, ligaments, dermis, function is protection

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64

Areloar CT (definition, location, function)

most widely distributed CT, organs, holds organs in place (universal packing tissue/glue)

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65

adipose ct (definition, location, function)

fat; eyeballs/tissue beneath skin, insulates body

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66

Reticular CT (definition, location, function)

Connective tissue that contains reticular fibers and cells; used to make the framework of major organs

located in spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow

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67

blood CT (definition, location, function)

the only liquid CT; consists of blood cells surrounded by blood plasma and is vascular.

it is located thruout body, and it carries nutrients/ serves as a transport vehicle for cardiovascular system

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68

skeletal muscle ((definition, location, function)

muscle composed of cylindrical multinucleate cells with obvious striations

-Voluntarily (consciously) controlled, striated -Attached to the skeleton and pull on bones or skin -Produces gross body movements or facial expressions

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69

smooth muscle (definition, location, function)

muscle consisting of spindle-shaped, unstriped (nonstriated) muscle cells

Involuntarily controlled, Found in walls of hollow organs such as stomach, uterus, and blood vessels, perilstalsis

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70

cardiac muscle (definition, location, function)

specialized muscle of the heart with striations and interclated discs; involuntary muscle

-Involuntarily controlled -Found only in the heart -Pumps blood through blood vessels

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71

nervous tissue

Composed of neurons and nerve support cells

Function is to receive and conduct electrochemical impulses to and from body parts

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72

Neuroglical cells/ neuroglia

nonneuronal tissue of the central nervous system that performs supportive and other functions

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73

epithelial

covering

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74

connective

support

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75

muscle

movement

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76

nervous

control

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77

integumentary system

Consists of the Skin (cutaneous membrane), Skin derivatives, Sweat glands, Oil glands, Hair, and Nails

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78

what does the skin protect deeper tissues from?

-Mechanical damage (bumps) -Chemical damage (acids and bases) -Bacterial damage -Ultraviolet radiation (sunlight) -Thermal damage (heat or cold) -Desiccation (drying out) -Keratin protects skin from water loss

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79

skin functions

-Aids in loss or retention of body heat as controlled by the nervous system -Aids in excretion of urea and uric acid -Synthesizes vitamin D -Cutaneous sensory receptors detect touch, temperature, pressure, and pain

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80

Skin layers (outer to inner)

epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous (hypodermis)

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81

epidermis

the outer layers of the skin; an epithelium. It is avascular and kertanized (most cells are keratinocytes)

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82

5 layers of the epidermis (superficial to deep)

stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale

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83

Stratum basale

deepest, dividing cell layer of the epidermis

also called stratum germinativum

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84

stratum spinosum

epidermal layer superficial (above) to the stratum basale; cells in this layer are filled with pre-keratin

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85

stratum lucidum

the epidermal layer found only in thick skin (only the palms of the hands or soles of the feet)

Formed from dead cells of the deeper strata

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86

stratum granulosum

epidermal layer just superficial to stratum spinosum; cells begin to flatten and become keratinized

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87

stratum corneum

outermost layer of the epidermis; composed of dead, keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

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88

dermis

the deep layer of the skin; composed of dense, irregular connective tissue

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89

What pigments contribute to skin color?

melanin, carotene, hemoglobin

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90

keratin

a tough, insoluble protein found in tissues such as hair, nails, and epidermis of the skin

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91

rule of nines (OPEN ENDED ON TEST)

Method of computing the extent of burns by dividing the body into 11 areas, each accounting for 9% of the total body area

The area surrounding the genitals (the perineum) represents 1 percent of body surface area

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92

ABCD rule of melanoma(OTHER OPEN ENDED ON TEST)

A = Asymmetry Two sides of pigmented mole do not match

B = Border irregularity Borders of mole are not smooth

C = Color Different colors in pigmented area

D = Diameter Spot is larger than 6 mm in diameter

E = Evolution

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93

axial skeleton

The skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum.

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94

appendicular skeleton

Bones of the limbs and limb girdles that are attached to the axial skeleton.

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95

osteocytes

Mature bone cells.

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96

osteoblasts

Bone-forming cells.

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97

subcutaneous layer

innermost layer of the skin, containing fat tissue

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98

what happens to epidermal cells as they undergo keratinization?

they die and become rougher; the dead, keratinized cells form the stratum corneum

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99

goblet cells

individual cells (simple glands) that produce mucus

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100

anatomy

the science of the structure of living organisms

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