we the people unit 1

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What were the diverse features of the early American colonies and states?

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1

What were the diverse features of the early American colonies and states?

Dependence on land, farming, diversity, and practice of slavery.

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2

What did the Founders learn about government?

Learned from reading history and philosophy, including Aristotle, Plato, Cicero, Hobbes, and Locke.

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3

How did history and first-hand experiences shape the thinking of the Founders?

Greek and Roman history taught them the risks of democracy and the importance of wise governance and respect for natural laws.

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4

What is the meaning of the term "constitution"?

A constitution is a set of fundamental principles and laws that govern a nation or organization.

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5

What is a constitutional government?

A limited government with defined powers.

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6

What are examples of constitutional governments?

United States and Great Britain.

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7

What is a non-constitutional government?

A government that lacks a constitution.

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8

What are examples of non-constitutional governments?

Israel and New Zealand.

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9

What ideas of civic life informed the founding generation?

Society's structure and roles influenced their lives.

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10

How does classical liberalism differ from classical republicanism?

Liberalism focuses on protecting individual rights, while republicanism emphasizes self-government and the common good.

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11

How did both classical liberalism and classical republicanism influence the founding generation in America?

Liberalism emphasized independence and individual rights, while republicanism valued community, moral education, and civic activities.

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12

What challenges does a society face when attempting to balance liberty and order?

resistance, trust issues, and adapting to change.

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13

What is the importance of natural rights philosophy and classical republicanism in today's society?

Both philosophies contribute to a balanced approach, with some valuing individual independence and others emphasizing community and cooperation.

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14

What historical developments influenced modern ideas of individual rights?

Medieval thinkers borrowed classical ideas of harmony.

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15

Describe the differences between classical republicanism and Judeo-Christian values that led to a new focus on the individual.

Classical republicanism emphasized harmony between individuals and society, while Judeo-Christian values emphasized the worth of each individual.

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16

How did the Protestant Reformation influence modern ideas about government, constitutionalism, and individual rights?

The Protestant Reformation challenged the corrupt practices of the medieval church and emphasized the study of ancient religious texts.

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17

How did theories of morality, the rise of capitalism, and the Enlightenment inspire the Founders?

Theories of morality emphasized the dignity and worth of each human being. The rise of capitalism linked property rights to government. The Enlightenment provided a framework for understanding government and social institutions.

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18

What were the British origins of American Constitutionalism?

Common law

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19

What is the evolution of rights in England?

Originally, English monarchs and royal judges recognized certain personal rights of subjects, known as 'the rights of Englishmen', which could not be changed or violated by the monarch or parliament. The Magna Carta confirmed these traditional rights and played a role in the development of constitutional government.

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20

What is the evolution of representative government in England?

Originally, the English monarch or their representatives made laws, supervised law enforcement, heard cases, and defended the kingdom. Over time, separate institutions like the parliament and royal court emerged. The parliament became a consistent body and provided a way for the English subjects to voice their grievances and limit monarchical power.

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21

What are the origins of some of Americans' most important constitutional rights?

The origins of some important constitutional rights in America can be traced back to the rule of law and representative government.

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22

How did documents like the Magna Carta, the Petition of Rights, and the English Bill of Rights influence the development of rights?

These documents confirmed and protected traditional rights, establishing a foundation for how people interact with the government and higher authorities.

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23

What are some basic ideas about rights and Constitutional government held by colonial Americans?

Colonial Americans believed in the importance of rights, Constitutional government, the rule of law, habeas corpus, and trial by jury.

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24

What were the incentive plans for developing profitable colonies?

Royal proprietorships and joint-stock companies.

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25

What was the purpose of the Mayflower Compact?

To establish a government that could serve the needs of the colonists.

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26

What did the Mayflower Compact lay the foundation for?

The states of Massachusetts.

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27

What was the significance of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut?

It established a central legislative assembly, a governor, and courts, and helped establish the American preference for written constitutions.

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28

What authority did the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut derive from?

All free men in the towns at the time.

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29

What did other colonies do in the years that followed the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut?

They also experimented with writing constitutions.

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30

Why did the Founders include written guarantees of basic rights in the creation of a new government?

To ensure that certain rights were protected and guaranteed by the government.

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31

What influenced the idea of written guarantees of basic rights?

The Magna Carta, which stated that all Englishmen enjoyed certain basic rights.

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32

Why did the Founders include the ideas of representative government in the creation of a new government?

To ensure that the government was accountable to the people and represented their interests.

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33

What were the differences between colonial life and life in England?

Colonial life was characterized by self-governance and the development of slavery, while life in England was more centralized and had different social and political structures.

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34

What was the role of the natural rights philosophy in supporting the development of slavery?

Some argued that certain races were naturally inferior and therefore could be enslaved.

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35

What was the role of the natural rights philosophy in condemning the development of slavery?

Others argued that all individuals had inherent rights and that slavery violated these rights.

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36

What was the impact of the natural rights philosophy on the development of slavery?

It provided both support and condemnation for the institution of slavery.

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37

What were some of the key documents that influenced the early development of America's traditions of constitutional government?

The Mayflower Compact, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, and other early colonial governments.

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38

What did the Mayflower Compact and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut establish?

They established governments that served the needs of the colonists and laid the foundation for the states of Massachusetts and Connecticut, respectively.

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39

What percentage of the colonial population were slaves?

20%

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40

What rights were women denied in colonial life?

Political rights

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41

What legal doctrine limited women's rights in colonial life?

Coverture

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42

What was the role of indentured servants in colonial America?

Many people went to America as indentured servants

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43

What was the distribution of land like in colonial America?

There was a greater distribution of land

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44

What was the social status requirement in colonial America?

There was no requirement to be 'well-born'

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45

What were the restrictions on land ownership in England?

Land could only be given to male family members

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46

What was the law of primogeniture in England?

Land had to be handed down to the eldest son

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47

What were the reasons for American colonists wanting to free themselves from Great Britain?

New taxes, trading restrictions, and loss of money

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48

What did American colonists believe about passing laws?

Laws should be passed only in their own colonial legislatures

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49

What was the slogan of American colonists regarding taxation?

No taxation without representation

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50

What arguments did colonists make about British policies violating constitutional government?

British policies violated basic principles of constitutional government and their rights as Englishmen

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51

Why did Americans resist British policies?

Americans resisted British policies because they believed their rights were being violated

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52

How did resistance to British policies lead to the Declaration of Independence?

Resistance to British policies eventually led to the drafting and signing of the Declaration of Independence

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53

What were the arguments made by the colonists to justify separation from Great Britain?

Belief in natural rights, human equality, government by consent, a long train of abuses, and the right of revolution.

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54

What were the implications of the Declaration of Independence?

Justification for the colonists' actions, winning sympathy and support from other nations.

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55

What basic ideas about government and rights are included in state constitutions?

Higher law and natural rights, social contract, popular sovereignty, representation and the right to vote, legislative supremacy, and checks and balances.

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56

How did the experiences of the states in developing their constitutions and bills of rights influence the framing of the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights?

Inclusion of protections against military tyranny, endorsement of civilian militia and the right to bear arms, political guarantees such as the right to vote and freedom of speech, and the inclusion of rights to counsel and trial by jury, and protection from legal searches and seizures.

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57

What are the protections provided by the Constitution?

Protection from forced self-incrimination, excessive bail and fines, and cruel and unusual punishment.

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58

Why were the Constitution of Massachusetts, the Virginia Declaration of Rights, and the Pennsylvania Constitution important for representative government?

They represented progress towards representative government in the United States.

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59

What were the two most important characteristics of the Constitution of Massachusetts?

Strong executive and representation of various economic classes.

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60

What rights were listed in the Pennsylvania Constitution?

Rights of enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing and protecting property, pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety.

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61

What was the main focus of the Pennsylvania Constitution?

Guaranteeing basic rights and protecting them from governmental interference.

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62

What specific rights were listed in the Virginia Declaration of Rights?

Freedom of the press and the rights of criminal defendants.

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63

What did the Virginia Declaration of Rights emphasize at the end?

Civic virtue and religious values based on classical republicanism.

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64

What was the overall purpose of the Constitution of Massachusetts?

To establish a state constitution similar to the US constitution.

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65

What was the main principle behind the Pennsylvania Constitution?

Protecting inherent rights from governmental interference.

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66

What was the significance of the Virginia Declaration of Rights?

It listed specific rights and emphasized civic virtue and religious values.

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67

What were the key characteristics of the Constitution of Massachusetts?

Strong executive and representation of various economic classes.

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68

What was the main focus of the Pennsylvania Constitution?

Guaranteeing basic rights and protecting them from governmental interference.

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69

What were the specific rights listed in the Virginia Declaration of Rights?

Freedom of the press and rights of criminal defendants.

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70

What was the Mayflower Compact?

A social contract theory that formed the foundation of America.

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71

Why was it drafted?

To establish a government in Massachusetts and serve the needs of the people.

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72

How could it be said to reflect the idea that government should be based on consent of the governed?

All agreed to live under the government for the protection of the colony.

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73

In what ways were eighteenth-century American and British societies similar and different in terms of individual liberty, equality of opportunity, suffrage, and property?

In America, wealth and family name didn't guarantee success, unlike in Britain. Both had guarantees of rights, influenced by the Magna Carta.

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74

How would you describe the economic, social, and political conditions of life in colonial America?

Reasoning behind decisions, hard life but opportunity to make money.

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75

How did these conditions affect the development of American ideas about government?

Emphasized the value of hard work and prosperity.

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76

How did the simple governing structures in colonial charters evolve into more comprehensive systems of local government before the Revolution?

Established roles, decision-making processes, and fairness through reasoning.

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77

What basic feature of English constitutionalism were found in the governments of the colonies?

Guarantees of rights and influenced by the Magna Carta.

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78

Why was the right to vote in the colonies limited to those who owned a certain amount of property?

To protect the interests of property owners.

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79

Why were colonial governments more representative than British government?

More people had access to land ownership and there was more diversity in districts.

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80

Why were written guarantees of rights in colonial documents important to the development of America's ideas about government?

They provided clarity, equal application, and served as an easier agreement.

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81

Are written guarantees of rights as important today as they were in colonial times? Why or why not?

Yes, they provide clarity and ease of application.

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82

How would you describe British policies toward the colonies before the 1750s?

Non-interference, minimal involvement

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83

How and why did those policies change in the 1760s and 1770s?

Shifted to focus on taxing goods, to control resistance and pay off debt

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84

What were the colonists' major objections to British policies in the 1760s?

Lack of representation, trade restrictions, taxation

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85

What rights did the colonists claim that those policies violated?

Right to be independent, no taxation without representation

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86

What is meant by the term sovereignty?

Authority

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87

How was sovereignty a disputed matter between Great Britain and the colonies?

Britain went against their initial agreement to protect the colonies

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88

What are the basic ideas and arguments set forth in the Declaration of Independence?

Natural rights, human equality, government by consent, right of revolution

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89

What basic ideas about government were contained in the new state constitutions?

Higher law and natural rights, Social contract, Popular sovereignty, Representation and the right to vote, Legislative supremacy, Checks and balances

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90

How was Massachusetts different?

Strong executive, Representation of various economic classes

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91

What were the Virginia ideas?

All men are by nature equally free and independent, All power is derived from and kept by the people, Government is or ought to be instituted for the common benefit, protection and security of the people, All men are equally entitled to free exercise of religion according to the dictates of conscience.

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92

What is the difference between the classical republican idea of civic virtue and Judeo-Christian ideas of morality?

Judeo-Christian ideas emphasize private morality and faith, while civic virtue focuses on teaching people how to be good overall.

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93

How did Judeo-Christian heritage contribute to the Founders' understanding of human rights?

Judeo-Christian heritage emphasized the importance of every person, regardless of their status.

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94

What features of society in the Middle Ages contributed to the view that rights belonged to groups rather than individuals?

Small communities and social classes in the Middle Ages led to a focus on group rights.

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95

How did feudalism contribute to the idea that government is based on contractual relationships?

Feudalism established a feudal contract that defined duties and rights, emphasizing contractual obligations between people.

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96

What modern ideas about rights were developed during the Renaissance?

During the Renaissance, individuals were allowed to interpret religious teachings freely, and the printing press facilitated the spread of ideas.

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97

How did the rise of nation-states help to stimulate thinking about principles of government such as constitutionalism, individual rights, and republicanism?

The rise of nation-states prompted discussions on the organization of government, leading to the development of principles like constitutionalism, individual rights, and republicanism.

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98

How did the development of capitalism encourage new thinking about the individual and society?

Allowed personal choice in jobs, businesses, and property ownership.

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99

Why was the invention of the printing press with moveable type important in promoting the spirit of individualism?

Increased access to reading, including the Bible.

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100

How did the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment influence the Founders?

Studying history and writers like Locke to understand government.

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