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The arrangement of parts within D N A affects

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109 Terms

1

The arrangement of parts within D N A affects

its actions within a cell, e.g. → relationship of structure to function.

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2

DNA & RNA are

nucleic acids

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3

polynucleotide

DNA & RNA are nucleic acids that consist of long chains polymers

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4

monomers

nucleotides

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sugar-phosphate backbone

repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate-sugarphosphate

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monomers are nucleotides that are joined together by

covalent bonds between the sugar of one and the phosphate of the next

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Each nucleotide consists of three components

a nitrogenous base

a sugar

a phosphate group

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8

DNA- deoxyribose sugar

missing an oxygen atom

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RNA

ribose sugar

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10

thymine (T) and cytosine (C)

single-ring structures

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11

adenine (A) and guanine (G)

larger, double-ring structures

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12

double helix sides

sugar-phosphate backbones connected by phosphodiester bonds

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13

each rung of double helix

a pair of bases connected by hydrogen bonds

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14

double helix base pairing rings

dictate the combos of bases

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15

During cell reproduction

DNA must duplicate

one copy to the new offspring cell while keeping one copy for itself

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16

Each strand of DNA serves as a template to

guide reproduction of the other strand

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17

DNA Replication: The players

ENZYME

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18

helicase

unzipping the DNA helix

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19

primase

Synthesizing an RNA primer

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DNA polymerase III

adding bases to a new DNA chain
proofreading the chain for mistakes

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21

DNA polymerase I

Removing RNA primers replacing gaps between ozakai fragments with correct nucleotides, repairing mismatched bases

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Ligase

final binding of nicks DNA during synthesis and repair

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gyrase

supercoiling

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origins of replication

DNA replication begins on a double helix at specific sites & proceeds in both directions, creating what are called replication “bubbles”

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25

DNA provides instructions to

a cell and the organism as a whole

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26

An organism’s genotype= its genetic makeup

is the heritable information contained in the sequence of nucleotide bases in its DNA.

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The phenotype,= the organism’s physical traits

arises from the actions of a wide variety of proteins

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28

Information flow

DNA specifies the synthesis of proteins

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29

How does an Organism’s Genotype Determines Its Phenotype

information flow

transcription

translation

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30

transcription

the transfer of genetic information from DN A into an RNA molecule

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translation

conversion between the nucleic acid language to the protein language

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DNA is linear sequence of

nucleotide bases

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33

When a gene is transcribed, the result is

a RNA molcule

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34

DNA is simply rewritten (transcribed) as a

sequence of bases of RNA

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35

The sequence of nucleotides of the RNA molecule dictates

the sequence of amino acids of the polypeptide

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36

gene to protein is based on

a triplet code

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37

codons

Triplet code: three base series

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codons are transcribed (copied) as

a complement to the RNA

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39

RNA codons are translated into

amino acids that together form a polypeptide

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40

genetic code

is the set of rules that convert a nucleotide sequence in RNA to an amino acid sequence

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41

how many triplet codons

64

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42

61 code for amino acids

one specifying start

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3 are stop codons

instructing the ribosomes to end the polypeptide

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44

A given RNA triplet always

specifies a given amino acid

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45

Wobble base

triplet codons allow for error in the code

Allows for some mistakes

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46

The genetic code is

nearly universal

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47

the genetic code is shared

by organisms from the simplest bacteria to the most complex plants and animals

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48

Genetic engineering

because diverse organisms share a common genetic code, we can program one species to produce a protein from another species by transplanting DNA

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49

Genetic engineering allows scientists

to mix & match genes from various species, with many useful genetic engineering applications in agriculture, medicine, and research

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50

Nucleotides added to the new RNA molecule

take their place one at a time by forming hydrogen bonds with the nucleotide bases there

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51

process of transcription

two DNA strands must first separate at the place where the process will start

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only one of the DNA strands serves as a

template for the newly forming RNA molecule; the other strand is unused

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RNA nucleotides linked by

RNA polymerase

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hydrogen bonds with the nucleotide base

U, with T, rather than A.

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55

promoter

“Start transcribing” signal is at the

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56

Initiation & Elongation

located in the DNA code at the beginning of the gene and specifies where RNA polymerase attaches

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Initiation

the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter and the start of RNA synthesis

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Elongation

the RNA grows longer and the RNA strand peels away from its DNA template

the DNA strands rejoin

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Termination

RNA polymerase reaches a terminator, signaling the end of the gene

polymerase detaches from the RNA & the gene

the DNA strands rejoin completely

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transcriptions stages

1.initiation

2.elongation

3.termination

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61

Prokaryotes

RNA transcribed from a gene immediately functions as messenger RNA (mRNA), the molecule translated into protein.

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Eukaryotic cell

localizes transcription in the nucleus and processes the RNA transcripts before they move to the cytoplasm for translation

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RNA processing

1. adding nucleotides: the cap & tail, that marking the mRNA for export from the nucleus & recognition by ribosomes

2. RNA splicing

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64

RNA splicing

taking out non-coding regions (introns) leaving only exons (coding regions- the parts that are expressed)

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mRNA produced by transcription requires

Ribosomes

tRNA- transfer RNA as an interpreter to match codons to amino acids to form the appropriate polypeptide

ATP to be translated

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To perform this task, tRNA molecules must carry out two distinct functions:

1. pick up the appropriate amino acids

2. recognize the appropriate codons in the mRNA

The unique structure of tRNA molecules enables them to perform both tasks

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Ribosomes

organelles in the cytoplasm that coordinate the functioning of mRNA and tRNA & make polypeptides.

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ribosomes consists of

two subunits, each is made up of proteins & ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

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ribosomes has

a binding site for mRNA on its small subunit and binding sites for tRNA on its large subunit

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70

Translation: The Process

divided into the same three phases as transcription: 1. initiation, 2. elongation, and 3. termination.

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Initiation: translation

1. An mRNA molecule binds to a small ribosomal subunit, then a special initiator tRNA binds to the start codon, where translation is to begin on the mRNA.

2. A large ribosomal subunit binds to the small one, creating a functional ribosome

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72

After initiation is complete in translation

amino acids are added one by one to the first amino acid during elongation

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Three-step elongation process: translation

1.Codon recognition

2. Peptide bond formation

3. Translocation

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Termination: translation

1. a stop codon reaches the ribosome’s A site

2. the completed polypeptide is freed,

3. the ribosome splits back into its subunits.

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75

Mutation

Any change in the nucleotide sequence of a cell’s DNA

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76

mutation can

involve large regions of a chromosome or just a single nucleotide pair

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within a gene can be divided into two general categories:

nucleotide substitutions & nucleotide insertions or deletions

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Missense mutations

a single nucleotide & change the AA coding

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Nonsense mutations

change of a normal codon into a stop codon

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80

Deletions or insertions

of one or more nucleotides in a gene cause frameshift mutations

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81

Deletions/ insertions

often have disastrous effects

may alter the triplet grouping of the genetic message

most often produces a nonfunctioning polypeptide

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82

Mutations can occur

in a number of ways

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Spontaneous mutations result from

random errors during DNA replication or recombination

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84

spontaneous mutations result from

random errors during DNA replication or recombination

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85

mutagens

physical & chemical agents

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86

most common physical mutagen is

high-energy radiation

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87

many mutagens can act as

carcinogens, agents that cause cancer, you should avoid them as much as possible.

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88

Mutations are one source of the

rich diversity of genes in the living world; diversity that makes evolution by natural selection possible

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89

virus

simple infectious particle consisting of a bit of nucleic acid wrapped in a protein coat and an envelope of membrane

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90

a virus share some

of the characteristics of living organisms

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91

virus in the form of

nucleic acid packaged within a highly organized structure

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virus is not considered

alive because it is not cellular and cannot reproduce on its own

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A viral genome may consist of

DNA or RNA, and may be single or double-stranded

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94

Bacteriophages

viruses that attack bacteria (“bacteria-eaters”), or phages for short

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95

bacteriophages consist of

a molecule of DNA enclosed within an elaborate structure made of proteins

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96

once they infect a bacterium

phages enter a reproductive cycle called the lytic cycle- using host to manufacture more virus

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lysogenic cycle

viral DNA incorporation of the viral genome into the host cell genome, infecting it from within

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98

Plant Viruses

infect plant cells can stunt plant growth and diminish crop yields

Most have RNA rather than DNA as their genetic material.

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Animal Viruses

infect animal cells are common causes of disease

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AIDS

caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), an RNA virus with some nasty twists

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